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Michael Apple is often described as the world’s leading sociologist of education. He was born in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1942. He began work as a substitute teacher at age 19 and later became a teacher union organizer and political activist. Since 1970, he has worked at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and is now the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies. Apple’s work revolves around three main interrelated axes— (1) the cultural politics of education, (2) equity and social justice, (3) and democracy and critical pedagogy. These concerns interweave over a 40-year period from Educational Evaluation: Analysis and Responsibility (1974) to Can Education Change Society? (2013). At the heart of this work is the simple question: What counts as official ...

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