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Brazil, Indigenous Education in

The indigenous peoples of Brazil are very diverse ethnically and sociolinguistically. Since 1988, they have had a constitutional right to have their own schools in a system parallel to mainstream education in Brazil. Before that, there were many approaches to indigenous education, including both official and unofficial initiatives. Today, indigenous education at the primary, secondary, and university levels is aimed at meeting the needs and honoring the wishes of the people. Indigenous education in Brazil has evolved through struggle from imposition within an integrationist view to a bottom-up movement respectful of cultures, languages, and traditions. As a result of indigenous and pro-indigenous mobilization and affirmative action, it has a new beginning, though there are many challenges to be faced by indigenous and nonindigenous peoples. ...

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