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Testing, State Versus National

The quest for increased student achievement and teacher accountability has drawn intensified attention to how educators develop and, more importantly, use tests in summative, formative, and consequential ways. This movement was initially spurred in 1983 by the publication of A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. Via this report, the federal government challenged the nation to raise its educational expectations for students. Federal pressure was increased with reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in 2001, as states were forced to adopt higher standards and accountability measures if they were to continue to receive federal funds for education. Moreover, in 2002 with the enactment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the federal government placed even greater emphasis on ...

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