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Testing, Judicial Decisions on

Courts have become involved in disputes over education testing in only a relatively small number of cases, but these cases provide insights into the relationships between courts and education institutions. Cases involving diversity issues of high-stakes testing will be addressed in this entry, while those less central to issues of access to educational opportunity will not. In the second half of the 20th century, as schools grappled with issues concerning school desegregation, the use of tests as part of classroom tracking or ability grouping practices were examined several times by the courts. Special education placement disputes have also drawn judges into testing issues. Courts have also addressed challenges to the use of tests for important decisions like the award of a high school diploma or ...

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