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A text is a verbal or nonverbal body of symbols and signs that Africans perceive and interpret as a language. Africans transmit the oral text verbally in such a way that the audience not only hears it, but also bears an imprint and transcription in their mind and memory. In ancient times, the oral text was referred to as medu netcber, “divine speech.” Sometime later, it was referred to as Nommo, the regenerative word. The oral text was and still is perceived by many Africans as verbal energy that is considered an effective vehicle of power. In African tradition, the beholder and master of the oral text was believed to not only paint a picture, but also deter maladies, conjure spirits, and appease and placate ...

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