Using Equity Audits in the Classroom to Reach and Teach All Students


Kathryn Bell McKenzie & Linda Skrla

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page



    I wish I had this book 20 years ago! At that time, after having learned to identify institutionalized patterns of discrimination in schools that can be changed, two colleagues and I tried to help teachers in four schools analyze their own schools and classrooms. We developed a package of data collection tools designed to guide their investigation into patterns such as race and class backgrounds of students in academic tracks or ability groups, race and gender representation in the curriculum, race/ gender patterns of interaction in classrooms, and gaps between teaching styles teachers used and those students preferred (Sleeter, 1992). For a year, teachers in the four schools gathered mountains of data.

    Gradually, however, two problems became apparent. First, the amount of data that had been gathered far exceeded the time teachers had to analyze it. My sense about what data were relevant had been guided by my experience conducting ethnographic studies in schools, and as a result, we far overshot what was manageable. Rather than helping teachers focus attention on a few key factors they could address, we overwhelmed them. Second, we realized that we lacked a process to help the teachers “make the familiar seem strange” so that they could think differently about problems they took for granted and ineffective “solutions” they were used to. As data they managed to analyze suggested patterns that we believed should be confronted, such as disproportionate disciplinary referrals of African American students, we realized that the teachers did not necessarily see themselves as able to address or responsible for addressing those patterns.

    In Using Equity Audits in the Classroom to Reach and Teach All Students, McKenzie and Skrla offer a clearly focused, highly usable set of tools that enable teachers to pinpoint and begin to address central equity problems in classrooms. McKenzie and Skrla are very well versed on the range of persistent inequities based on race, gender, language, and disability that are deeply embedded in the structures and practices of schooling. But they are also pragmatic change agents. The brilliance of this book is that, by beginning with the question of who is actively engaged in your classroom and who is not, and by identifying the evidence you are using to assess students' engagement, the authors make use of your professional knowledge and honor your ability to think through problems when guided in asking and reflecting on the right questions. In a sense, this book offers a tool for teachers that models forms of teaching that most contribute to student learning.

    Hattie's (2009) comprehensive meta-analysis of research evidence highlights the predominant influence of the teacher on student achievement. Specifically, teachers whose students achieve academically seek feedback from their students regarding what the students know and understand, and where they are confused and are making errors. Such teachers have a clear understanding of what they want students to learn and what learning looks like, and they can guide the students interactively, providing regular feedback. Using Equity Audits in the Classroom to Reach and Teach All Students zeroes in on a problem teachers care about—students they are not reaching. Although McKenzie and Skrla are not working personally with you, through this book they engage you in active investigation into your own practice, interacting with you along the way.

    To be sure, this book does not take on the wide range of inequities in schools and the wider society. School curricula, for example, are generally based on the worldview of members of the dominant society. Many students in urban classrooms come to school from communities that are systematically oppressed through racist housing patterns, an absence of good jobs, routine racial profiling, and ongoing violence (McCarthy, Crichlow, Dimitriadis, & Dolby, 2005). Despite these huge and persistent problems, however, McKenzie and Skrla challenge us to break the link between academic achievement and students' racial, gender, language, disability, and social class backgrounds. Breaking that link, in itself, matters greatly to students, and it is doable. I recall watching the same groups of students in a diverse, urban secondary school move from one classroom to the next, encountering markedly different experiences from one teacher to the next. While one teacher found most of the students unteachable and poorly behaved, the next teacher engaged the very same students in worthwhile academic learning. Teachers have power to facilitate academic learning among virtually all of their students. I greatly appreciate McKenzie and Skrla for not only believing this, but helping teachers become better at using that power.

    Hattie, J. A. C. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of 800+ meta-analyses on achievement. New York: Routledge.
    McCarthy, C., Crichlow, W., Dimitriadis, G., & Dolby, N. (Eds.). (2005). Race, identity, and representation in education (
    2nd ed
    ). New York: Routledge.
    Sleeter, C. E. (1992). Restructuring schools for multicultural education. Journal of Teacher Education, 43(2), 148–156.


    We first wish to thank the educators—teachers and leaders—in the schools and school districts with whom we work as researchers and professors. What we have learned about equitable and excellent classrooms is grounded in field experiences that were possible only because generous practitioners opened the doors of their schools and classrooms for our research and because our master's and doctoral students teach us as much as we teach them. Particularly, we wish to acknowledge Aldine Independent School District and Superintendent Wanda Bamburg for their ongoing commitment to working in partnership with Texas A&M University to support research on effective classrooms, schools, and districts for highly diverse student populations, as well as all the administrators and teachers in Bryan Independent School District who have helped to generate and refine many of the strategies suggested within this text.

    Additionally, we would like to thank the foundations whose financial support enabled us to conduct our research—the Sid W. Richardson Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and the Houston Endowment. Without the commitment of these foundations to supporting research on school success for children of color and children from low-income homes, our work would not have been possible.

    Last, a special thanks to the third member of our creative team, Jim Scheurich, who was not along for this latest adventure because he was immersed in a project of his own, but whose ideas and ongoing friendship remain important parts of everything we produce.

    Kathryn's Acknowledgments

    Linda, thank you. Working alongside my best friend and traveling buddy, not to mention my daily sounding board and cheerleader, is a gift. Thanks also to my loving and supportive family: Martyn, who is hiking the world with me, all along sipping champagne, gulping coffee, and having great conversations; my children, whom I am so proud of, Kelsey and Kolter McKenzie; my newest family members, Sophie, Andy, Caroline, and Daniel Curtis, who have brought great friendship and joy into my life; and our newest addition, granddaughter Maddox Kincaid McKenzie, who of course is perfect and gifted. She is also a constant reminder that every child is the manifestation of potential, and developing that potential for goodness depends on all of us and our willingness to care for each child as if that child were our child. And finally, thanks to the other sentient beings that give me a giggle, love me no matter what, and get muddy paw prints all over the furniture, Macy, Nils, and Hank.

    Linda's Acknowledgments

    I am blessed to work with a colleague who also is my dearest friend; thanks, Kathryn, for everything that you are in my life. Thanks also to Michelle Young and Andrea Rorrer for their friendship and professional expertise that we all share in the midst of incredibly busy lives.

    Much love and thanks to my family for their unwavering love and support. My three sons—Steve, Scott, and Eric—are all amazing young men of whom I am incredibly proud. My mom, Mary Jane, and my sister Sandie are strong, smart, and beautiful women who have always believed in me. And my furry family members, Shelby and Drake, provide warmth and love that I could not do without. Thanks also go to the wonderful friends I have made in my “second life” as a serious classic rock and roll fan and Journey aficionada, most especially Debbie and Tom.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the following individuals for their editorial insight and guidance:

    • Dano Beal, Gifted/Talented Ed Specialist
    • Lafayette Elementary School
    • Seattle Public Schools
    • Seattle, WA
    • Rosalind Pijeaux Hale, Professor, Chair, and NCATE Coordinator
    • Division of Education
    • Xavier University of Louisiana
    • New Orleans, LA
    • Nicky Kemp, Principal
    • North Callaway R1-Williamsburg Elementary
    • Williamsburg, MO
    • Debra K. Las, Science Teacher
    • John Adams Middle School
    • Rochester, MN
    • Betty Brandenburg Yundt, Curriculum Coordinator
    • Walker Intermediate School
    • Fort Knox, KY

    About the Authors

    Kathryn Bell McKenzie is associate professor of educational administration and affiliated faculty member in Women's and Gender Studies at Texas A&M University. Prior to joining the faculty at Texas A&M, Kathryn worked for over 25 years in public education as a classroom teacher, curriculum specialist, assistant principal, principal, and deputy director of the University of Texas/Austin Independent School District Leadership Academy. Maintaining her commitment to practice and practitioners, Kathryn consults and researches extensively in public schools. Her areas of research include equity and social justice in schools, school leadership, and qualitative methodology. Kathryn is associate editor for Educational Administration Quarterly and the International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. She has published extensively in the major journals in her field. Kathryn and her colleagues Linda Skrla and Jim Scheurich are the authors of the bestselling Corwin (2009) book, Using Equity Audits to Create Equitable and Excellent Schools.

    Linda Skrla is professor of educational administration at Texas A&M University. Prior to joining the Texas A&M faculty in 1997, Linda worked as a middle school and high school teacher and as a campus and district administrator in public schools. Her research focuses on educational equity issues in school leadership, including accountability policy, high-success school districts, and women superintendents. Linda is vice president of Division A of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and editor of Educational Administration Quarterly. She has published extensively in academic journals and has coauthored or coedited five other books, the most recent of which is Using Equity Audits to Create Equitable and Excellent Schools (Corwin, 2009).

  • References

    Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Artiles, A. J., Harry, B., Reschley, D., & Chinn, P. (2001). Over-identification of students of color in special education: A critical overview. Chicago, IL: The Monarch Center, University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved from
    Artiles, A. J., & Trent, S. C. (1994). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. The Journal of Special Education, 27(4), 410–437. doi: 10.1177/002246699402700404 1994
    Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S.Ramachaudran (Ed.). Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted from Encyclopedia of mental health, by H. Friedman, Ed., 1998, San Diego, CA: Academic Press).
    Barrows, H. S. (1986). A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Medical Education, 6(20), 481–486. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.1986.tb01386.x
    Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York, NY: Springer.
    Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York: Longman.
    Bol, L., & Berry, R. Q. (2005). Secondary mathematics teachers' perceptions of the achievement gap. High School Journal, 88(4), 32–45. doi: 10.1353/hsj.2005.0007
    Brookfield, S. D. (1985). Self-directed learning: From theory to practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Brookfield, S. D. (1993). Self-directed learning, political clarity, and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(4), 227–242. doi: 10.1177/074173693043004002
    Brookfield, S. D. (2009). Self-directed learning. In R.Maclean & D. N.Wilson (Eds.), International handbook of education for the changing world of work (pp. 2615–2627). New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-5281-1_172
    Brooks, K., Schiraldi, V., & Zidenberg, J. (1999). School house hype: Two years later. San Francisco, CA: Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from
    Brophy, J. (1988). Classroom management as socializing students into clearly articulated roles. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33(1), 1–4.
    Burton, N. W., Whitman, N. B., Yepes-Baraya, M., Cline, F., & Kim, R. M. (2002). Minority student success: The role of teachers in advanced placement courses. Draft final report prepared for the Advanced Placement Research Committee. New York, NY: The College Entrance Examination Board. Retrieved from
    Caffarella, R. S. (1993). Self-directed learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 57, 25–35. doi: 10.1002/ace.36719935705
    California Department of Education. (2008). Statewide enrollment by ethnicity. Retrieved from
    Chavkin, N. (1993). Families and schools in a pluralistic society. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Clark, R. E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53(4), 445–458. doi: 10.3102/ 00346543053004445
    Costenbader, B. K., & Markson, S. (1998). School suspension: A study with secondary school students. Journal of School Psychology, 36, 59–82. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4405(97)00050-2
    Dardig, J. (2008). Involving Parents of Students With Special Needs: 25 Ready-to-Use Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Davis, J. E., & Jordan, W. J. (1994). The effects of school context, structure, and experiences on African American males in middle school and high school. The Journal of Negro Education, 63(4), 570–587.
    Delgado-Gaitan, C. (1992). School matters in the Mexican-American home: Socializing children to education. American Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 495–513.
    Delpit, L. (2006). Lessons from teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 220–231. doi: 10.1177/0022487105285966
    Diamond, J. B., Randolph, A. R., & Spillane, J. P. (2004). Teachers' expectations and sense of responsibility for student learning: The importance of race, class, and organizational habitus. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 35(l), 75–98. doi:10.1525/aeq.2004.35.1.75
    Donovan, S., & Cross, C. T. (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, DC: National Research Council.
    Edmonds, R. (1979). Effective schools for the urban poor. Educational Leadership, 37(1), 15–18, 20–24.
    Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B.Baron & R. J.Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 9–26). New York, NY: Freeman.
    Ferguson, C. (2008). The school-family connection: Looking at the larger picture. Austin, TX: SEDL.
    Fisher, C. W., Berliner, D. C., Filby, N. N., Marliave, R., Cahen, L. S., & Dishaw, M. M. (1981). Teaching behaviors, academic learning time, and student achievement: An overview. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 17(1), 2–15.
    Ford, D. Y. (1998). The underrepresentation of minority students in gifted education problem and promises in recruitment and retention. The Journal of Special Education, 32(1), 4–14. doi: 10.1177/002246699803200102
    Ford, D. Y., & Harris, J. J. (1997). A study of the racial identity and achievement of black males and females. Roeper Review, 20(2), 105–110.
    Frase, L. E., English, F. W., & Poston, W. K. (1995). The curriculum management audit. Lancaster, PA: Technomic.
    Freire, P. (1974). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury.
    Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
    Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed. New York: Basic Books.
    Gender Equity Education Act. Taiwan, Republic of China. Passed by the Legislative Yuan on June 4, 2004. Retrieved from
    Government of Western Australia. (2009). Conducting a pay equity audit. Retrieved from
    Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement: Current perspectives on research and practice. School Psychology Review, 31, 328–349.
    Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J., & Noguera, P. A. (2010). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: Two sides of the same coin?Educational Researcher, 39, 59–82. doi: 10.3102/0013189X09357621
    Harry, B., & Anderson, M. G. (1994). The disproportionate placement of African American males in special education programs: A critique of the process. The Journal of Negro Education, 63(4), 602–619.
    Harry, B., Klingner, J., Sturges, K., & Moore, R. (2002). Of rocks and soft places: Using qualitative methods to investigate the processes that result in disproportionality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Publishing Group.
    Haycock, K. (2001). Closing the achievement gap. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 6–11.
    Hewson, P. W., Kahle, J. B., Scantlebury, K., & Davies, D. (2001). Equitable science education in urban middle schools: Do reform efforts make a difference?Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(10), 1130–1144. doi: 10.1002/tea.10006
    Johnson, R., Johnson, D., & Stanne, M. (1986). Comparison of computer-assisted cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. American Educational Research Journal, 23(3), 382–392.
    Johnson, R., & La Salle, R. A. (2010). Data strategies to uncover and eliminate hidden inequities: The wallpaper effect. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Kahle, J. (1998). Research equity in systemic reform: How do we assess progress and problems?Madison, WI: National Institute for Science Teaching.
    Kirp, D. L. (1995). Changing conceptions of educational equity. In D.Ravitch & M. A.Vinovskis (Eds.), Learning from the past: What history teaches us about school reform (pp. 97–112) Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. New York: Cambridge Books.
    Kolb, D. (1981). Experiential learning theory and the learning style inventory: A reply to Freedman and Stumpf. The Academy of Management Review, 6(2), 289- 296. doi: 10.2307/257885
    Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
    Kolb, D., & Fry, R. (1975). Towards a theory of applied experiential learning. In C.Cooper (Ed.), Theories of group processes (pp. 33–57). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (
    2nd ed.
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465–491.
    Laiore, L. (2003). Fieldwork in common places: An ethnographer's experiences in Tory Island. Ethnomusicology Forum, 12(1), 113–136. doi: 10.1080/09681220308567355
    Leadscape. (2011). Census count risk ratio (vs. other races), 2005–2006. Retrieved from
    Lightfoot, S. L. (1978). Worlds apart: Relationships between families and schools. New York: John Wiley.
    Lohman, D. F., Korb, K. A., & Lakin, J. M. (2008). Identifying academically gifted English- language learners using nonverbal tests: A comparison of the Raven, NNAT, and CogAT. Gifted and Talented Quarterly, 52(4), 275–296. doi: 10.1177/0016986208321808
    Lopez, G. R. (2001). The value of hard work: Lessons on parental involvement from immigrant households. Harvard Educational Review, 71(3), 416–437.
    Losen, D., & Orfield, G. (2002). Racial inequity in special education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Publishing.
    McKenzie, K., & Lozano, R. (2008). Teachers' zone of self-efficacy: Which students get included, which students get excluded, and more importantly, why. The National Journal of Urban Education and Practice, 1(4), 372–384.
    McKenzie, K. B., & Scheurich, J. J. (2004). Equity traps: A useful construct for preparing principals to lead schools that are successful with racially diverse students. ducationalAdministration Quarterly,40(5),601–632. doi: 10.1177/0013161X04268839
    McKenzie, K. B., Skrla, L., & Scheurich, J. J. (2006). Preparing instructional leaders for social justice. Journal of School Leadership, 16(2), 158–170.
    Mendez, L., & Knoff, H. (2003). Who gets suspended from school and why: A demographic analysis of schools and disciplinary infractions in a large school district. Education & Treatment of Children, 26(1), 30–51.
    MetLife. (2009). The MetLife survey of the American teacher: Collaborating for success. Retrieved from
    Mitchell, J. K., & Poston, W. K. (1992). The equity audit in school reform: Three case studies of educational disparity and incongruity. International Journal of Educational Reform, 1(3), 242–247.
    Moles, O. C. (1993). Reaching all families: Creating family-friendly schools. Darby, PA: Diane Publishing.
    Moon, T. R., & Brighton, C. M. (2008). Primary teachers' conceptions of giftedness. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 31(4), 447–480.
    National Association of Secondary School Principals. (2000, February). Statement on civil rights implications of zero tolerance programs. Testimony presented to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.
    National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). Contexts of elementary and secondary education: School characteristics and climate. Retrieved from
    National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education. (2004). NCLB action briefs: Parental involvement. Retrieved from
    National Health Service Bristol. (n.d.). What is a health equity audit? Retrieved from
    Neihart, M., Reis, S., Robinson, S., & Moon, S. (2002). The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know?Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
    Nichols, J., Ludwin, W., & Iadicola, P. (1999). A darker shade of gray: A year-end analysis of discipline and suspension data. Equity & Excellence, 32(1), 43–55. doi: 10.1080/1066568990320105
    Oxford, R. L. (1994). Where are we regarding language learning motivation?The Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 512–514. doi: 10.2307/328589
    Poston, W. K. (1992). The equity audit in school reform: Building a theory for educational research. International Journal of Educational Reform, 1(3), 235–241.
    Raffaele Mendez, L. M., Knoff, H. M., & Ferron, J. M. (2002). School demographic variables and out-of-school suspension rates: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of large ethnically diverse school district. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 259–276. doi: 10.1002/pits.10020
    Reid, D. K., & Knight, M. G. (2006). Disability justifies exclusion of minority students: A critical history grounded in disability studies. Educational Researcher, 35(6), 18–23.
    Reis, S., & Renzulli, J. (2009). Myth 1: The gifted and talented constitute one single homogeneous group and giftedness is a way of being that stays in the person over time and experiences. Gifted Child Quarterly, 53(4), 233–235.
    Resnick, L. B. (2010). Nesting learning systems for the thinking curriculum. Educational Researcher, 39(3), 183–197. doi: 10.3102/0013189X10364671
    Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 5(35), 31–38.
    Scheurich, J., & Skrla, L. (2003). Leadership for equity and excellence: Creating high- achievement classrooms, schools, and districts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Skiba, R., Michael, R., Nardo, A., & Peterson, R. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. The Urban Review, 34(4) pp. 317–342. doi: 10.1023/A: 1021320817372
    Skrla, L., McKenzie, K. B., & Scheurich, J. J. (2009). Using equity audits to create equitable and excellent schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Skrla, L., McKenzie, K., Scheurich, J. J., & Dickerson, K. (2007, April 12). Second generation accountability and working class values support system-wide success in an urban fringe Texas district. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
    Skrla, L., Scheurich, J., Garcia, J., & Nolly, G. (2004). Equity audits: A practical leadership tool for developing equitable and excellent schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 135–163. doi: 10.1177/0013161X03259148
    Skrla, L., Scheurich, J., & Johnson, J. (2000). Thinking carefully about equity and accountability. Phi Delta Kappan. 82(4), 293–299.
    Sleeter, C. (2008). Equity, democracy, and neoliberal assaults on teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(9), 1947–1957. doi: 10-1016/ j.tate.2008.04.003
    Solórzano, D., & Ornelas, A. (2002). A critical race analysis of advance placement classes: A case of educational inequalities. Journal of Latinos and Education, 1, 215–229.
    Southern Poverty Law Center. (2009, November 24). ‘Race to the top fund’ offers schools opportunity to improve discipline. Retrieved from
    Steffy, B. (1993). The Kentucky education reform. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
    Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2007). Are teachers' expectations different for racial minority than for European American students? A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 253–273. doi: 10-1037/0022-0663.99.2.253
    Texas Education Agency. (2008). 2007–08 academic excellence indicator system. Retrieved from
    Texas Education Agency. (2009). 2008–09 academic excellence indicator system. Retrieved from
    Texas Education Agency. (2010). Performance-based monitoring division. Retrieved from
    The Civil Rights Project. (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies. Report from a National Summit on Zero Tolerance, Washington, DC, June 15–16, 2000. ERIC record ED454314. Retrieved from
    The Civil Rights Project. (2002). Equity overlooked: Charter schools and civil rights policy. Retrieved from
    Theriot, M. T., Craun, S. W., & Dupper, D. R. (2010). Multilevel evaluation of factors predicting school exclusion among middle and high school students. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(1), 13–19. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.06.009
    U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). Office for civil rights. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Education. (2009). Annual report to Congress of the Office for Civil Rights fiscal years 2007–08. Retrieved from
    Washington Alliance for Better Schools. (2003). A new wave of evidence: Relationships between effective parental involvement and student achievement. Retrieved from
    Weiss, H. B., Mayer, E., Vaughan, P., Kreider, H., Dearing, E., Hencke, R., & Pinto, K. (2003). Making it work: Low-income working mothers' involvement in their children's education. American Educational Research Journal, 40(4) 879–901. doi:10.3102/00028312040004879

    CORWIN: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website