Special Needs and Early Years: A Practitioner's Guide

Books

Kate Wall

  • Citations
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  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
    • Chapter 1: Legislation and Policy
    • Introduction
    • Development of Nursery Provision in the UK
    • The Range of Early Years Settings
    • The Historical Development of Special Needs Provision and Legislation in the UK
    • Summary
    • Timeline of Key Legislation, Reports and Guidance Since 2000
    • Chapter 2: Families of Children with Special Needs
    • Introduction
    • Children and Their Families
    • Children with Special Needs and Their Families
    • Parental Acceptance of Special Needs at or Soon After Birth
    • Parental Acceptance of Special Needs at a Later Stage
    • Grandparents
    • Siblings
    • Implications for Practice
    • The Increase in Numbers of Children with Special Needs
    • Summary
    • Chapter 3: Partnerships with Parents
    • Introduction
    • Parental Involvement or Partnership?
    • Parental Issues Affecting Partnership
    • Quality of Partnership
    • Home–School Liaison Teachers and Family Centres
    • Characteristics of Positive Partnerships
    • Positive Outcomes for Practitioners
    • Positive Outcomes for Parents
    • Positive Outcomes for Children
    • Levels of Partnership
    • Legislation and Guidance
    • Parental Involvement in Observation, Assessment and Reviewing Progress
    • Factors Supporting Positive Partnerships
    • Issues Compromising Partnerships
    • In Working Practice
    • Summary
    • Chapter 4: Responding to the Affective Needs of Young Children
    • Introduction
    • Definitions and Terminology
    • Legislation and Guidance
    • Personal, Social and Emotional Development
    • Causal Factors
    • Self-Concept
    • Behaviour
    • Summary
    • Chapter 5: Observation and Assessment
    • Introduction
    • Children's Rights, Legislation and Guidance
    • Purposes and Value of Observation and Assessment
    • Principles of Observation and Assessment
    • Methods of Assessment 1 – Observations
    • Methods of Assessment 2 – Checklists and Questionnaires
    • Methods of Assessment 3 – Observing Through Play
    • Methods of Assessment 4 – Involving the Children
    • Methods of Assessment 5 – Children's Behaviour
    • Profiling
    • The EYFS Profile and Assessment
    • Summary
    • Chapter 6: Programmes of Intervention
    • Introduction
    • Definitions
    • Effective Interventions
    • ‘Differentiating’ the Curriculum
    • Individual Education Plans
    • Specific Intervention Programmes 1 – Speech and Language Difficulties
    • Specific Intervention Programmes 2 – Autistic Spectrum Disorders
    • Summary
    • Chapter 7: Interagency Working
    • Introduction
    • Definitions and Models
    • Historical Developments
    • Progression to Date
    • The Need for Interagency Working
    • Features of Effective Practice
    • Understanding the Roles of Other Professionals
    • Skills and Qualities Needed
    • The Professionals Involved
    • The Role of the SENCO
    • Planning and Coordination in Early Years Settings
    • Factors Affecting Collaboration
    • Issues for the Future
    • Summary
    • Chapter 8: Inclusive Education for Young Children
    • Introduction
    • Historical Development and Legislation
    • Definitions and Models
    • Reasons for Inclusion
    • Enabling Inclusion in Early Years Settings
    • Issues and Barriers
    • Including Disadvantaged Children
    • Summary
    • Chapter 9: Key Issues for Consideration
    • Concluding Comments
  • Education at SAGE

    SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets.

    Our education publishing includes:

    • accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development
    • inspirational advice and guidance for the classroom
    • authoritative state of the art reference from the leading authors in the field

    Find out more at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/education

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Foreword

    Let us hope that as the new Coalition Government is led by two fathers of young children – and both the Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister appear to be highly involved parents compared with many politicians of years ago – the increased interest in ensuring every child matters is maintained, despite the severe economic climate we are experiencing and which may persist for some time.

    Kate Wall details for us once again in this gem of a book, the need for a period of calm. A time of consolidation, with developments in training for Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) professionals to ensure we move, as a society, to the kind of inclusion which would mean young children would no longer be deemed to have ‘special needs’. Inclusion would be taken for granted, a matter of course. As Kate says, good inclusive practice is ‘just good practice’.

    When those of us on the team drafted the research review for Birth to Three Matters (David, Goouch, Powell and Abbott, 2003), what surprised us was, firstly, the simplicity of the conclusions we could draw and secondly that two of our three main conclusions – that all young children need loving, sensitive key persons around them and that they need to be respected as people – remained intact in the published report. Our fear that these conclusions would be altered or cut was based on the fact that no government can ensure these. They are the responsibility of the whole society and especially of those who work with families, particularly vulnerable or isolated families. At that time we were very fortunate to have Kate read, comment on and add influential suggestions to our synthesis of analysis of some 500-plus publications. I believe that Kate's work is founded on those same messages.

    Both the previous editions of Kate's book have been greeted enthusiastically by practitioners and received glowing reviews by many colleagues. Kate's ability to blend theory, research evidence, policy and a wealth of practical knowledge helps ECEC professionals to work meaningfully with all the children and families with whom they become involved. Once again, in updating the book, Kate keeps us abreast of developments in all those aspects of this important field.

    This third edition of Kate's book moves us on yet again and will, no doubt, benefit many children because it will provoke new insights in practitioners, students, researchers and policy makers. It will be a book colleagues read and enjoy but also return to, as they constantly review their work in order to ensure inclusive practice. However, I guess Kate is really hoping that a fourth edition will be unnecessary – because maybe after all her efforts we will have become able to value and build on every child's individual talents, sharing the joy of their achievements with parents and other family members.

    TriciaDavid, Emeritus Professor of Education, Canterbury Christ Church University, and (2003–2009) Emeritus Professor of Early Childhood Education, University of Sheffield July 2010
    References
    David, T., Goouch, K., Powell, S. and Abbott, A. (2003) Birth to Three Matters: A Review of the Literature. Research Report 444. London: DES.

    Acknowledgements

    My thanks go to all those who have supported me in my writing endeavours, specifically Pia Parry and all my colleagues at the University of Chichester who have been very aware of the difficulties and time pressures placed on me over recent months. I must also thank Jude Bowen at Sage, and her team, for their hard work and support throughout the writing process. My greatest thanks are to Michael, Sam and Tracy for their unfailing belief in me, and this time I need to give huge thanks to Sam in particular who has painstakingly read, re-read and tracked changes along with me – she has also tried to teach me about apostrophes but has failed along with everyone else – sorry, Sam!

    As always, this book is dedicated to my mum.

    About the Author

    Kate is a Principal Lecturer at the University of Chichester and Programme Leader for the BA (Hons) Early Childhood Studies with Practitioner Options Degree. She is a member of the Advisory Board for NASEN, the Members Forum for NCB and regularly speaks at conferences across the UK and abroad. Kate is also an external examiner and regularly engages as an external expert in validation events and periodic reviews at other HE institutions. Kate spent over 20 years as an early years teacher, beginning as a reception class teacher then progressing through a range of interesting and challenging posts before moving into the field of special education supporting children aged 2–8 years with special needs and disabilities and their families. Her last role before moving into HE was leading practice in an early years special unit. Since entering HE, Kate has also actively worked as an author, publishing many articles and several books related to special needs and working practice. Her interest in children with autism stems from her own working experiences which challenged yet rewarded her greatly. Kate is passionate about effective integrated working, the early years workforce and improving provision for young children with special needs, but also for their families who, she feels, are often overlooked. She is always ready to challenge policy and to suggest possible ways forward for the benefit of children and families.

    Glossary of Acronyms

    ACEAdvisory Centre for Education
    ADHDAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    AHDCAiming High for Disabled Children
    AITAuditory Integration Training
    ASDAutistic spectrum disorder
    CAFCommon Assessment Framework
    CLICCancer and Leukaemia in Children
    CSIECentre for Studies on Inclusive Education
    CWDCChildren's Workforce Development Council
    DCSFDepartment for Children, Schools and Families
    DfEEDepartment for Education and Employment
    DfESDepartment for Education and Skills
    DoHDepartment of Health
    DRCDisability Rights Commission
    ECMEvery Child Matters
    EECEarly Excellence Centres
    ELGEarly Learning Goals
    EPEducational psychologist
    ESEarly Support
    ESNEducationally subnormal
    EYATEarly Years Advisory Teacher
    EYDCPEarly Years Development and Childcare Partnership
    EYFSEarly Years Foundation Stage
    EYPEarly Years Professional
    EYPSEarly Years Professional Status
    EYQISPEarly Years Quality Improvement and Support Programme
    GPGeneral Practitioner
    HEIHigher Education Institution
    HVHealth Visitor
    IBPIndividual Behaviour Plan
    IDPInclusion Development Programme
    IEPIndividual Education Plan
    IPSEAIndependent Panel for Special Education Advice
    IQIntelligence quotient
    ITInformation technology
    LALocal authority
    LEALocal education authority
    LSALearning support assistant
    MLDModerate learning difficulties
    NASNational Autistic Society
    NASENNational Association of Special Educational Needs
    NEETNot in education, employment or training
    NNEBNursery nurse
    NSFNational Service Framework
    NVQNational Vocational Qualification
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    OFSTEDOffice for Standards in Education
    OTOccupational therapist
    PBCLPre-school Behaviour Checklist
    PECSPicture Exchange Communication System
    PLAPre-School Learning Alliance
    PPSParent Partnership Scheme
    PSEDPersonal, social and emotional development
    RBARemoving Barriers to Achievement
    SEALSocial and emotional aspects of learning
    SENSpecial educational needs
    SENCOSpecial educational needs coordinator
    SENDASpecial Educational Needs and Disability Discrimination Act
    SENDISTSpecial Educational Needs and Disability Tribunal
    SLCNSpeech, language and communication needs
    SLDSevere learning difficulties
    SLTSpeech and language therapist
    SMARTSpecific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time bound
    SNSpecial needs
    SPELLStructure; Positive approaches and expectations; Empathy; Low arousal environments; and Links with parents
    SSDSeverely subnormal difficulties
    SSDSocial services department
    TACTeam around the Child
    TDATraining and Development Agency for Schools
    TEACCHTreatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children
    TfCTogether for Children
    TfDCTogether for Disabled Children

    Definitions

    The following terminology is used throughout this book:

    Early years/young children are those aged 0–8 years, but this book will focus predominantly on the under 5s or pre-school children as there is a plethora of information available on children of statutory school age.

    Early years provider/provision/setting refers to any practitioner or establishment providing opportunities and/or support to 0–5-year-old children. This will include pre-school groups, nurseries, nursery classes, childminders, daycare, special needs units/classes/schools, early excellence centres, Children's Centres, wrap-around care, Sure Start centres and educare groups.

    Parents refers to any person, parent or otherwise, assuming ‘parental responsibility’ for the child.

    Professionals/practitioners refers to any person working with children in any setting, whether or not they hold professional qualifications.

    Special educational needs (SEN) are any difficulties experienced by a child requiring additional or different educational provision to be made. Special needs (SN) are those difficulties experienced by a child that do not necessarily result in a special educational need.

    Special Needs, Additional Needs or Individual Needs?

    I would suggest that all children, like all adults, have individual needs that will change in type, severity or nature during different phases of their lives. It should be our aim, therefore, as early years practitioners to enable all children to achieve their optimum potential whether they are identified as having ‘special needs’, ‘special educational needs’, or not. However, in the current early years arena, despite discussions around ‘additional needs’ and ‘individualised’ or ‘personalised learning’, policy still uses the term ‘special educational needs’ (e.g. Code of Practice, DfES, 2001c) so for this reason the term ‘special educational needs’ will be used throughout this book.

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