Skills in Business: The Role of Business Strategy, Sectoral Skills Development and Skills Policy

Books

Johnny Sung & David N. Ashton

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To our children:

    Bethany Raddon-Sung, Kate Ashton, Dr Heidi Ashton and Wendy Ashton

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    About the Authors

    David N Ashton is Emeritus Professor at the University of Leicester and Honorary Professor at the University of Cardiff. He established the Centre for Labour Market Studies at Leicester University in 1989 as a centre for research and teaching on skills and labour market issues. He has researched and published extensively on skill formation, human resource development, and the analysis of national systems of workforce development and training. His most recent book with Professor Brown and Lauder is The Global Auction. The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs and Income (2011, Oxford University Press).

    He has provided consultancy services to various government departments within the UK concerned with issues of education, business and skills and most recently the United Kingdom Commission for Employment and Skills. Outside the UK he has provided consultancy services to government departments in South Africa, Singapore, the EU and to international agencies such as the International Labour Organisation and World Bank.

    Johnny Sung works at the Institute for Adult Learning, Singapore Workforce Development Agency. He is Head of the Centre for Skills, Performance and Productivity, conducting three strands of national research: a) Skills utilisation and job quality in Singapore; b) The sectoral approach to skills and performance in key industry sectors; c) Adult competencies and job performance.

    Prior to the appointment in Singapore, Johnny was Chair of Skills and Performance at the University of Leicester (UK). He carried out research projects for UK government agencies, research councils, professional bodies, international agencies such as the International Labour Office, the World Bank and other national governments. Professor Sung is also currently Honorary Professor at Cardiff University (UK).

    Acknowledgements

    The ideas in this book have had a long gestation period. Over the past decade we have been working together on a variety of projects funded by research councils and government departments and agencies in a number of countries. Most of that research has been involved in case study work with organisations both public and private, which has enabled us to test and refine our ideas. So we have numerous organisational leaders, human resource (HR) directors and industry experts to thank for their time and input into our work. In addition, we have presented the ideas to numerous participants on the postgraduate courses we have taught in the UK, Ireland and Europe, and their inputs, usually as HR professionals, have been very useful. Academically, we have had discussions with many colleagues but would like to acknowledge Phil Brown, Hugh Lauder, Ewart Keep, Francis Green, Geoff Mason and Mark Spilsbury as colleagues with whom we have had longstanding conversations on skills issues over a number of years from which we have greatly benefited.

    This book has a strong policy focus that stems from our constant engagement with the policy process at both national and international levels and our conviction that the research process combined with good theory can make a substantial contribution towards more effective policy. In the UK, we would like to acknowledge staff at the UK Commission for Employment and Skills and in Singapore at the Workforce Development Agency, especially Dr Gog Soon Joo who shared with us her idea of ‘institutional logics’ for changing employers’ competitive behavior. We would also like to acknowledge the contribution of anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. At SAGE Publications, we would like to thank Ms Gemma Shields for her excellent editorial support.

    Last but not least, we would like to thank our families, who have been so tolerant in allowing us time and space to write this book. In this respect, we would like to thank Dr Arwen Raddon and Maureen Ashton for their constant support and encouragement, without which this project would not have been possible.

  • References

    Adler, P.S. (2004) ‘Skill trends under capitalism and the socialisation of production’, in C. Warhurst, I. Grugulis and E. Keep (eds), The Skills That Matter. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 242–260.
    Anderson, P. and Warhurst, C. (2012) ‘Lost in translation? Skills policy and the shift to skill ecosystems’, in T. Dolphin and D. Nash (eds), Complex New World: Translating New Economic Thinking into Public Policy. London: IPPR. pp. 109–120.
    Ansoff, H.I. (1965) Corporate Strategy: An Analytic Approach to Business Policy for Growth and Expansion. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Antonelli, C. (1999) ‘The evolution of the industrial organization of the production of knowledge’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23: 243–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cje/23.2.243
    Ashton, D.N. (2004) ‘The impact of organisational structure and practices on learning in the workplace’, International Journal of Training and Development, 8(1): 43–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-3736.2004.00195.x
    Ashton, D.N. and Field, D. (1976) Young Workers: From School to Work. London: Hutchinson.
    Ashton, D. and Green, F. (1996) Education, Training and the Global Economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Ashton, D.N. and Maguire, M.J. (1980) ‘The function of academic and non-academic criteria in employers’ selection strategies’, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 8(2): 146–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069888008258184
    Ashton, D.N. and Sung, J. (2002) Supporting Workplace Learning for High-Performance Working. Geneva: ILO.
    Ashton, D. and Sung, J. (2006) ‘How competitive strategy matters? Understanding the drivers of training, learning and performance at the firm level’, SKOPE Research Paper No. 66. Oxford: Oxford and Warwick Universities.
    Ashton, D., Brown, P. and Lauder, H. (2010) ‘Skill webs and international human resource management: Lessons from a study of the global skill strategies of transnational companies’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(6): 838–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585191003729325
    Ashton, D.N., Green, F.J., James, D. and Sung, J. (1999) Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in Newly Industrialised Economies. London: Routledge.
    Ashton, D., Loke, F. and Sung, J. (forthcoming 2014) ‘Productivity and skills in the Infocomm sector’, Research Report, Centre for Skills Performance and Productivity Research. Singapore: Institute of Adult Learning.
    Ashton, D.N., Sung, J., Raddon, A. and Riordan, T. (2008) ‘Challenging the myths about learning and training in small enterprises: Implications for public policy’. Employment Working Paper No. 1, 2008/1. Geneva: ILO. (Available at http://www.ilo.org/skills/what/pubs/lang-en/docName-WCMS_103625/index.htm, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Aspin, C. (2003) The Water-Spinners: A New Look at the Early Cotton Trade. Helmshore: Helmshore Local History Society.
    Bain, J. (1956) Barriers to New Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674188037
    Barrett, R. (ed.) (2005) Management, Labor Process and Software Development: Reality Bytes. London: Routledge.
    Bartel, A., Ichniowski, C. and Shaw, K. (2007) ‘How does information technology really affect productivity? Plant-level comparisons of product innovation, process improvement and worker skills’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(4): 1721–1758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/qjec.2007.122.4.1721
    Batt, R. (2000) ‘Strategic segmentation in front-line services: Matching customers, employees and human resource systems’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(3): 540–561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095851900339756
    Baumol, W.J. (1967) ‘Macroeconomics of unbalanced growth: The anatomy of an urban crisis’, American Economic Review, 57: 415–426.
    Becker, G.S. (1964) Human Capital. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
    Becker, G.S. (1994) Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education,
    3rd edn.
    London: University of Chicago Press.
    Belanger, J. and Edwards, P. (2013) ‘The nature of front-line service work: Distinctive features and continuity in the employment relationship’, Work Employment and Society, 27(3): 433–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017013481877
    Bell, D. (1999) The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books.
    Bendix, R. (1963) Work and Editority in Industry. New York: Harper.
    Benyon, H. (1973) Working for Ford. London: Allen Lane.
    Berger, S. (2006) How We Compete: What Companies Around the World are Doing to Make it in Today's Global Economy. New York: Doubleday.
    Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D. and Wood, S.J. (2008) ‘The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study’, Personnel Psychology, 61: 467–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00136.x
    BIS, Department for Business Innovation and Skills (2010) ‘Economic growth’, BIS Economics Paper No. 9. London: Department for Business Innovation and Skills.
    Blackburn, R.M. and Mann, M. (1979) The Working Class in the Labour Market. London: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-16097-6
    Blauner, R. (1964) Alienation and Freedom: The Factory Worker and His Industry. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Bloom, N. and Van Reenen, J. (2006) ‘Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries’, Working Paper 12216. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. (Available at http://www.nber.org/papers/w12216, accessed 7 April 2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w12216
    Bloom, N. and Van Reenen, J. (2007) ‘Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(4): 1341–1408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/qjec.2007.122.4.1351
    Bloom, N. and Van Reenen, J. (2010a) ‘Human resource management and productivity’, Centre for Economic Performance, Discussion Paper No. 982. London: London School of Economics.
    Bloom, N. and Van Reenen, J. (2010b) ‘Why do management practices differ across firms and countries?’, Centre for Economic Performance, Occasional Paper 26. London: London School of Economics.
    Bloom, N., Genakos, C., Sadun, R. and Van Reenen, J. (2009a) ‘Management matters’, LSE/Stanford mimeo. London: London School of Economics.
    Bloom, N., Sadun, R. and Van Reenen, J. (2009b) ‘The organization of firms across countries’, CEP Discussion Paper No. 937. London: London School of Economics. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w15129
    Bloom, N., Genakos, C., Sadun, R. and Van Reenen, J. (2011) ‘Management practices across firms and countries’, Centre for Economic Performance, Discussion Paper No. 1109. London: London School of Economics.
    Bosch, G. and Weinkopf, C. (eds) (2008) Low-Wage Work in Germany. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. pp. 288–314.
    Bowen, D. and Ostroff, C. (2004) ‘Understanding HRM - firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system’, Academy of Management Review, 29(2): 203–221.
    Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (1976) Schooling in Capitalist America. New York: Basic Books.
    Boxall, P. (2003) ‘HR strategy and competitive advantage in the service sector’, Human Resource Management Journal, 13(3): 5–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2003.tb00095.x
    Boxall, P. (2012) ‘High-performance work systems: What, why, how and for whom?’, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resource, 50: 169–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7941.2011.00012.x
    Boxall, P. (2013) ‘Mutuality in the management of human resources: Assessing the quality of alignment in employment relationships’, Human Resources Management Journal, 23(1): 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12015
    Boxall, P. and Macky, K. (2009) ‘Research and theory on high-performance work systems: Progressing the high-involvement stream’, Human Resource Management Journal, 19: 3–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2008.00082.x
    Brink, H., Muthiah, S. and Nalk, R. (2010) ‘A better way to automate service operations’, McKinsey on Business Technology, 20(Summer): 38–44.
    Brockmann, M. (2013) ‘Learning cultures in retail: Apprenticeships, identity and emotional work in England and Germany’, Journal of Education and Work, 26(4): 357–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2012.661847
    Brockmann, M., Clarke, L. and Winch, C. (eds) (2011) Knowledge, Skill and Competence in the European Labour Market. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Brown, P., Ashton, D., Lauder, H. and Tholen, G. (2008) ‘Toward a high-skilled, low-waged, workforce? A review of global trends in education, employment and the labour market’, SKOPE Monograph No. 10. Oxford: Cardiff and Oxford Universities.
    Brown, P., Lauder, H. and Ashton, D. (2011) The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs and Income. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Brown, P., Lauder, H. and Green, A. (2002) High Skills: Globalization, Competitiveness and Skill Formation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Brynjolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. (2003) ‘Computing productivity: Firm level evidence’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 8(4): 793–808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/000282802762024638
    Brynjolfson, E. and Saunders, A. (2010) Wired for Innovation. How Information Technology is Reshaping the Economy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Buchanan, J., Scott, L., Yu, S., Schutz, H. and Jakubauskas, M. (2010) ‘Skills demand and utilisation: An international review of approaches to measurement and policy development’, DECD Local Economic and Employee Development, Working Papers 2010/04. London: Department for Education and Child Development. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5km8zddfr2jk-en
    Cabinet Office (2001) ‘In demand: Adult skills in the 21st century’, A Performance and Innovation Unit Report. London: Cabinet Office. (Available at http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/4578/1/Finalrep.pdf, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Campbell, M. (2012) ‘Skills for prosperity? A review of OECD and partner country skill strategies’, LLAKES Research Paper 39. London: London University, Institute of Education.
    Campbell, M. (2013) ‘Management matters: Key findings from the surveys’, UKCES Briefing Paper. Wath-upon-Dearne: UKCES.
    Campbell, R. ([1747]1969) The London Tradesman: Being a Compendious View of All the Trades, Professions, Arts both Liberal and Mechanic, now Practifed in the Cities of London and Westminster. Newton Abbot: David and Charles Reprints.
    Caroli, E. and Van Reenen, J. (2001) ‘Skill-biased organizational change’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(4): 1449–1492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/003355301753265624
    Chandler, A.D., Jr (1962) Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Chandler, A.D. (1976) ‘The development of modern management structure in the US and UK’, in L. Hannah (ed.), Management Strategy and Business Development. London: Macmillan.
    Chandler, A.D. (1977) The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Chandler, A.D. (1990) Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Chinoy, E. (1955) Automobile Workers and the American Dream. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    CIPD (2007) Learning and Development: Annual Survey Report 2007. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
    CIPD (2012) ‘Competence and competency frameworks’, Factsheet. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
    Cockburn, S. (1983) Brothers: Male Dominance and Technical Change. London: Pluto Press.
    Connor, T. (2002) ‘The resource-based view of strategy and its value to practising managers’, Strategic Change, 11(6): 307–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsc.593
    Crespi, G., Criscuolo, C. and Haskel, J. (2007) ‘Information technology, organizational change and productivity growth: Evidence from UK firms’, Centre for Economic Performance, Discussion Paper 783. London: London School of Economics.
    Danford, A., Richardson, M., Stewart, P., Tailby, S. and Upchurch, M. (2005) Partnership and the High Performance Workplace: Work and Employment Relations in the Aerospace Industry. Basingstoke: Palgave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230501997
    Day, G.S. and Montgomery, D.B. (1983) ‘Diagnosing the experience curve’, Journal of Marketing, 47 (Spring): 44–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251492
    de Menezes, L., Wood, S. and Gelade, G. (2010) ‘The integration of human resource and operation management practices and its link with performance: A longitudinal latent class study’, Journal of Operations Management, 28(6): 455–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2010.01.002
    Delbridge, N. (1998) Life On the Line in Contemporary Manufacturing: The Workplace Experience of Lean Production and the ‘Japanese’ Model. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292333.001.0001
    Dench, S., Hillage, J., Reilly, P. and Kodz. J. (2000) Employers’ Skill Survey: Case studies - Food Manufacturing Sector. Brighton: Institute of Employment Studies.
    Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) (2004) ‘Six sigma’, Factsheet. London: DTI.
    Dickerson, A. and Vignoles, A. (2007) ‘The distribution and returns to qualifications in the sector skills councils’, SSDA Research Report No. 21. Wath-Upon-Dearne: Sector Skills Development Agency.
    Doeringer, P.B., Evans-Klock, C.A. and Terkla, D.G. (2002) Start-up Factories: High-performance Management, Job Quality and Regional Advantage. New York: Oxford University Press and W.E. Upjohn Institute.
    Doorewaard, H. and Meihuizen, H. (2000) ‘Strategic performance options in professional service organisations’, Human Resource Management Journal, 10(2): 39–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2000.tb00019.x
    Dore, R. (1973) British Factory-Japanese Factory: The Origins of National Diversity in Industrial Relations. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    Drucker, P.F. (1946) Concept of the Corporation. New York: The John Day Company.
    Drucker, P. (1954) The Practice of Management. New York: Harper & Row.
    Eaton, S. (2000) ‘Beyond unloving care: Linking human resource management and patient care quality in nursing homes’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(3): 591–616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095851900339774
    Elias, N. (1978) What is Sociology? London: Hutchinson.
    Emirbayer, M. and Mische, A. (1998) ‘What is agency?’, American Journal of Sociology, 103(4): 962–1023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/231294
    Felstead, A., Fuller, A., Jewson, N. and Unwin, L. (2009) Improving Working as Learning. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Felstead, A., Fuller, A., Unwin, L., Ashton, D., Butler, P. and Lee, T. (2005) ‘Surveying the scene: Learning metaphors, survey design and the workplace context’, Journal of Education and Work, 18(4): 359–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13639080500327857
    Felstead, A., Gallie, D., Green, F. and Hande, I. (2013) Skills at Work in Britain: First Findings from the Skills and Employment Survey, 2012. London: Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies, Institute of Education.
    Felstead, A., Gallie, D., Green, F. and Zhou, Y. (2007) Skills at Work in Britain, 1986 to 2006. Oxford: ESRC Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance.
    Ferdows, K. and De Meyer, A. (1990) ‘Lasting improvements in manufacturing performance: In search of a new theory’, Journal of Oprations Management, 9(2): 168–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-6963%2890%2990094-T
    Findlay, P. and Warhurst, C. (2012) ‘Skills utilisation in Scotland’, Skills in Focus Paper. Glasgow: Skills Development Scotland.
    Finegold, D. (1999) ‘Creating self-sustaining high-skill ecosystems’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 15(1): 60–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/15.1.60
    Finegold, D. and Soskice, D. (1988) ‘The failure of British training: Analysis and prescription’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 4(3): 21–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/4.3.21
    Fitton, R.S. (1989) The Arkwrights: Spinners of Fortune. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Form, W. (1987) ‘On the degradation of skills’, Annual Review of Sociology, 13: 29–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.13.080187.000333
    Fuller, A. and Unwin, L. (2003) ‘Learning as apprentices in the contemporary UK workplace: Creating and managing expansive and restrictive participation’, Journal of Education and Work, 16(4): 407–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363908032000093012
    Funding Universe (no date) ‘McDonald's corporation history’. South Jordan, UT: Funding Universe/Lendio. (Available at http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/McDonalds-Corporation-Company-History.html, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Galbraith, J.K. (1967) The New Industrial State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Gallie, D. (2011) ‘Production regimes, employee job control and skill development’, LLAKES Research Paper 31. London: Institute of Education. (Available at http://www.llakes.org, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Garrett, R., Campbell, M. and Mason, G. (2010) ‘The value of skills: An evidence review’, Evidence Report 22. London: UKES and the National Institute for Economic and Social Research. (Available at http://www.ukces.org.uk/publications/er22-the-value-of-skills, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Gautié, J. and Schmitt, J. (2009) Low-wage Work in a Wealthy World. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Ghemawat, P. (2002) ‘Competition and business strategy in historical perspective’, The Business History Review, 76(1): 37–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4127751
    Glucksmann, M.A. (2004) ‘Call configurations: Varieties of call centre and divisions of labour’, Work, Employment and Society, 18(4) 795–811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017004047965
    Goldschmid, H.J., Mann, H.M. and Weston, J.F. (1974) Industrial Concentration: The New Learning. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
    Goldthorpe, J., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, F. and Platt, J. (1968) The Affluent Worker: Industrial Attitudes and Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Goldthorpe, J., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, F. and Platt, J. (1969) The Affluent Worker in the Class Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Goleman, D. (1996) Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. London: Bloomsbury.
    Goodridge, P., Haskel, J. and Wallis, G. (2012) ‘UK innovation index: Productivity and growth in UK industries, 2012’, NESTA Working Paper 12/09. London: NESTA. (Available at http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/uk-innovation-index-productivity-and-growth-uk-industries, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Green, F. (2006) Demanding Work. The Paradox of Job Quality in the Affluent Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Green, F. (2010) ‘Unions and skills utilisation’, Unionlearn, Research Paper 11. London: TUC.
    Green, F. (2013) Skills and Skilled Work: An Economic and Social Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199642854.001.0001
    Green, F., Ashton, D. and Felstead, A. (2001) ‘Estimating the determinants of the supply of computing, problem-solving, communication, social and teamworking skills’, Oxford Economic Papers, 53(3): 406–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oep/53.3.406
    Grimshaw, D., Cooke, F.-L., Grugulis, I. and Vincent, S. (2002) ‘New technology and changing organizational forms: Implications for managerial control and skills’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 17(3): 186–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00104
    Grubb, W.N. and Ryan, P. (1999) The Roles of Evaluation for Vocational Education and Training: Plain Talk in the Field of Dreams. Geneva: ILO.
    Grugulis, I. (2007) Skills, Training and Human Resource Development: A Critical Text. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Guest, D. (2011) ‘Human resource management and performance: Still searching for some answers’, Human Resource Management Journal, 21(1): 3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2010.00164.x
    Hall, P.A. and Soskice, D. (2001) Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199247757.001.0001
    Hannah, L. (1983) The Rise of the Corporate Economy,
    2nd edn.
    London: Methuen.
    Hansson, B. (2008) ‘Job-related training and benefits for individuals: A review of evidence and explanations’, OECD Education Working Paper No. 19. Paris: OECD. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/237755412637
    Haskel, J., Goodridge, P., Pesole, A., Awano, G., Franklin, M. and Kastrinaki, Z. (2011) Driving economic growth: Innovation, knowledge spending and productivity growth in the UK’, NESTA Index Report. London: NESTA. (Available at http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/driving-economic-growth, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Haynes, P. and Fryer, G. (1999) ‘Changing patterns of HRM and employment relations in New Zealand: The large hotel industry’, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 37(2): 33–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/103841119903700204
    Haynes, P. and Fryer, G. (2000) ‘Human resources, service quality and performance: A case study’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(4): 240–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09596110010330813
    Henderson, B.D. (1979) Henderson on Corporate Strategy. Cambridge, MA: HarperCollins College Division.
    Henderson, G., Schmuecker, K. and Baker, R. (2013) ‘The rationale for localising the skills system in the UK’, IPPR Report North. London: IPPR.
    Hinings, C.R., Hickson, D.J., Pennings, J.M. and Schneck, R.E. (1974) ‘Structural conditions of intraorganisational power’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 19(1): 22–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391786
    Hobsbawn, E.J. (1968) Industry and Empire. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Holmes, A. (2008) Commoditization and the Strategic Response. Aldershot: Gower.
    Hughes, J. (2005) ‘Bringing emotion to work: Emotional intelligence, employee resistance and the reinvention of character’, Work Employment and Society, 19(3): 603–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017005055675
    Hughes, J. (2008) ‘The high performance work paradigm: A review and evaluation’, Learning as Work Research Paper No. 16. Cardiff: Cardiff School of Social Sciences.
    Hughes, A. and Scott Morton, M.S. (2005) ‘ICT and productivity growth - the paradox resolved?’, Centre for Business Research, Working Paper No. 316. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
    Hunter, L. (2000) ‘What determines job quality in nursing homes?’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 53(3): 463–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001979390005300306
    Huselid, M.A. and Becker, B.E. (2011) ‘Bridging micro and macro domains: Workforce differentiation and strategic human resource management’, Journal of Management, 37(3): 421–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206310373400
    Jaehrling, K. and Méhaut, P. (2013) ‘Varieties of institutional avoidance: Employers’ strategies in low-waged service sector occupations in France and Germany’, Socio-Economic Review, 11: 687–710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ser/mws016
    Kakavelakis, K. (2008) ‘Family metaphors and learning processes in a restaurant chain’, Learning as Work Research Paper No. 18. Cardiff: Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University.
    Kalleberg, A.L., Marden, P., Reynolds, J. and Knoke, D. (2006) ‘Beyond profit? Sector differences in high-performance work practices’, Work and Occupations, 33(3): 271–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888406290049
    Keep, E. (2009) ‘The limits of the possible: Shaping the learning and skills landscape through a shared policy narrative’, SKOPE Research Paper No. 86. Oxford: Oxford and Cardiff Universities.
    Keep, E. (2011) ‘The English skills policy narrative’, in A. Hodgson, K. Spours and M. Warring (eds), Post-Compulsory Education and Lifelong Learning Across the United Kingdom - Policy, Organisation and Governance, pp. 18–38. London: Institute of Education.
    Keep, E. (2013) ‘Opening the “Black Box” - the increasing importance of a public policy focus on what happens in the workplace’, Skills in Focus. Glasgow: Skills Development Scotland. (Available at http://www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/645441/ek_presn_skillsinfocus_19thapril2013.pdf, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Keep, E. and Mayhew, K. (2010) ‘Moving beyond skills as a social and economic panacea’, Work Employment and Society, 24: 565–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017010371663
    Kerr, C., Dunlop, J.T, Harbison, F. and Myers, C.A. (1960) Industrialism and Industrial Man: The Problem of Labor and Management in Economic Growth. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
    Kohn, M.L. and Schooler, C. (1983) Work and Personality: An Inquiry into the impact of Social Stratification. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Koike, K. (1996) The Economics of Work in Japan. Tokyo: LTCB International Library Foundation.
    Koike, K. and Inoki, I. (1990) Skill Formation in Japan and Southeast Asia. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
    Kouzes, B. and Posner, J. (2002) The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
    Krahn, H. (1997) ‘On the persistence of human capital: Use it or lose it’, Policy Options, 18(6): 17–21.
    Lanning, T. and Lawton, K. (2012) ‘No train no gain: Beyond free-market and state-led skills policy’, IPPR Report. London: IPPR.
    Lawler, E.E., Mohrman, S.A. and Benson, G. (2001) Organizing for High Performance, Employee Involvement, TQM, Reengineering, and Knowledge Management in the Fortune 1000. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    LEITCH Review of Skills (2006) Prosperity for all in the Global Economy - World Class Skills: Final Report. Norwich: HMSO.
    Lepak, D. and Snell, S. (1999) ‘The strategic management of human capital: Determinants and implications of different relationships’, Academy of Management Review, 24: 1–18.
    Lepak, D., Liao, H., Chung, Y. and Harden, E. (2006) ‘A conceptual review of human resource management systems in strategic human resource management research’, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 25: 217–271.
    Liker, J.K. (2004) The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the ‘World's Greatest Manufacturer’. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lloyd, C., Mason, G. and Meyhew, K. (2008) Low-Wage Work in The United Kingdom. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Lowe, G.S. (1987) Women in the Administrative Revolution. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Madrick, J. (2004) ‘Business, Wal-Mart and productivity’, New York Times, 2 September.
    Mason, E.S. (1939) ‘Price and production policies of large-scale enterprise’, American Economic Review, Mar: 61–64.
    Mason, G. (2004) ‘Enterprise product strategies and employer demand for skills in Britain: Evidence from the employers skill survey’, SKOPE Research Paper No. 50. Oxford: Oxford and Warwick Universities.
    Mason, G. (2005) ‘In search of high value added production: How important are skills? Investigations in the plastics processing, printing, logistics and insurance industries in the UK’, Research Report No. 663. Nottingham: DfES.
    Mason, G. (2011) ‘Product strategies: Skills shortages and skill updating needs in England: New evidence from the National Employers Skills Survey, 2009’, UKCES Evidence Report 30. Wath-upon-Dearne: UKCES.
    Maurice, M., Sellier, F. and Silvestre, J. (1986) Social Foundations of Industrial Power: A Comparison of France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Mayhew, K. and Keep, E. (2014) ‘Industrial strategy and the future of skills policy: The high road to sustainable growth’, Research Insight Report. London: CIPD.
    Mazzucato, M. (2013) The Entrepreneurial State. London: Anthem Press.
    McGovern, P., Gratton, L., Hope-Hailey, V., Stiles, P. and Truss, C. (1997) ‘Human resource management on the line?’, Human Resource Management Journal, 7(4): 12–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.1997.tb00286.x
    McKinsey Global Institute (2010) How to Compete and Grow: A Sector Guide to Policy. Worldwide: McKinsey & Co.
    Miles, R.E. and Snow, C.C. (1978) Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Neely, A.D. (2008) ‘Exploring the financial consequences of the servitisation of manufacturing’, Operations Management Research, 1(2): 103–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12063-009-0015-5
    Ng, H., Ndengabaganizi, D. and Shiou, J. (2012) Singapore: Aerospace Industry. Singapore: US Department of Commerce. (Available at http://www.kallman.com/shows/singapore_airshow_2014/pdfs/Singapore-Aerospace%20Industry.pdf, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Nishii, L., Lepak, D. and Schneider, B. (2008) ‘Employee attributions of the “why” of HR practices: Their effects on employee attitudes and behaviours, and customer satisfaction’, Personnel Psychology, 61(3): 503–545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00121.x
    OECD (2011) ‘Skills strategy’. OECD: Paris. (Available at http://www.oecd.org/edu/47769132.pdf, accessed 7 April 2012).
    OECD (2012a) Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives: A Strategic Approach to Skills Policies. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (2012b) Education at a Glance. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (2012c) ‘New sources of growth: Knowledge-based capital driving investment and productivity in the 21st century’, interim Project Findings. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (2013) Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. Paris: OECD.
    Ohmae, K. (1982) The Mind of the Strategist. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Orlikowski, W.J. (1992) ‘The duality of technology: Rethinking the concept of technology in organizations’, Organizational Science, 3(3) Focused Issue: Management of Technology: 398–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.3.3.398
    Osterman, P. (1991) ‘The impact of IT on jobs and skills’, in M. Morton (ed.), The Corporation of the 1990s: Information Technology and Organizational Transformation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 220–243.
    Osterman, P. and Shulman, B. (2011) Good Jobs America: Making Work Better for Everyone. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Payne, J. and Keep, E. (2011) ‘One step forward, two steps back? Skills policy in England under the Coalition Government’, SKOPE Research Paper No. 102. Cardiff: Cardiff University.
    Payne, J. and Lloyd, C. (2004) ‘Just another bandwagon? A critical look at the role of high-performance workplace as a vehicle for the UK high-skills project’, SKOPE Research Paper 49. Cardiff: Cardiff University.
    Penn, R. (1984) Skilled Workers in the Class Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Pollard, S. (1968) The Genesis of Modern Management. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Porter, M.E. (1980) Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: The Free Press.
    Postrel, V. (2002) ‘Lessons in keeping business humming, courtesy of Wal-Mart U’, The New York Times, 28 February.
    Powell, W.W. and Snellman, K. (2004) ‘The knowledge economy’, Annual Review of Sociology, 30: 199–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100037
    Prahalad, C.K. and Hamel, G. (1990) ‘The core competence of the corporation’, Harvard Business Review, May-June.
    Psacharopoulos, G. and Patrinos, H. (2002) ‘Returns to investment in education: A further update’, Policy Research Working Paper 2881. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Purcell, J. and Hutchinson, S. (2007) ‘Front-line managers as agents in the HRM-performance causal chain: Theory, analysis and evidence’, Human Resource Management Journal, 17: 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2007.00022.x
    Rajan, R. and Wulf, J. (2006) ‘The flattening firm: Evidence from panel data on the changing nature of corporate hierarchies’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(4): 759–773. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/259258
    Ramsay, H., Scholarios, D. and Harley, B. (2000) ‘Employees and high-performance work systems: Testing inside the black box’. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 38(4): 501–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8543.00178
    Ramstad, E. (2009) ‘Promoting performance and the quality of working life simultaneously’, International Journal of Productivity and Performance, 58(5): 423–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17410400910965706
    Reich, R. (1991) The Work of Nations. New York: Vintage.
    Roberts, S. (2013) ‘Gaining skills or just paying the bills? Workplace learning in low-level retail employment’, Journal of Education and Work, 26(3): 267–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2011.653555
    Rostow, W.W. (1960) The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Roy, D. (1952) ‘Quota restriction and goldbricking in a machine shop’, American Journal of Sociology, 67: 157–169.
    Schumpeter, J.A. (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Routledge. (Republished in 2003 as e-book, with an introduction by E. Swedberg.)
    Senge, P.M. (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday.
    Shah, R. and Ward, P. (2003) ‘Lean manufacturing: Context, practice bundles, and performance’, Journal of Operations Management, 21(2): 129–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963%2802%2900108-0
    Siebert, W. and Zubanov, N. (2009) ‘Searching for the optimal level of employee turnover: A study of a large UK retail organization’, Academy of Management Journal, 52(2): 294–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2009.37308149
    Smith, A. ([1776]1970) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Pelican Books.
    Smith, A., Courvisanos, J., Tuck, J. and MacEachern, S. (2011) Building Innovation Capacity: The Role of Human Capital Formation in Enterprises: A Review of the Literature. Adelaide: NCVER.
    Sorenson, H.O. (2008) ‘Pay and job quality in Danish call centers’, in N. Westergaard-Nielsen (ed.), Low-Wage Work in Denmark. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. pp. 258–299.
    Sparham, E. and Sung, J. (2008) ‘High-performance work practices: Work intensification or “win-win”’, Centre for Labour Market Studies, Working Paper No. 50. Leicester: University of Leicester.
    Springett, P. (2013) ‘Factories for finance? Industrialization is back on the agenda in a big way this year’, Capco Institute Blog. (Available at http://www.capco.com/insights/capco-blog/factories-for-finance-industrialization-is-back-on-the-agenda-in-a-big-way-this, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Stanton, P., Young, S., Bartram, T. and Leggat, S. (2010) ‘Singing the same song: Translating HR messages across management hierarchies in Australian hospitals’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(4): 567–581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585191003612075
    Steiger, T.L. (1993) ‘Construction skills and skill construction’, Work Employment and Society, 7(4): 535–560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017093007004003
    Sterling, A. and Boxall, P. (2013) ‘Lean production, employee learning and workplace outcomes: A case analysis through the ability-motivation-opportunity framework’, Human Resource Management Journal, 23(3): 227–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12010
    Stieger, R. (1984) Skilled Workers in the Class Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Stigler, G.J. (1968) The Organization of Industry. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Storey, J. and Salaman, G. (2005) Managers of Innovation: Insights into Making Innovation Happen. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Storey, J. and Salaman, G. (2008) ‘Business models and their implications for skills’, SKOPE Monograph No. 11. Oxford: Cardiff and Oxford Universities.
    Streeck, W. (1991) ‘On the institutional conditions of diversified quality production’, in E. Matzner and W. Streeck (eds), Beyond Keynsianism: The Socio-Economics of Production and Full Employment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. pp. 21–61.
    Sung, J. and Ashton, D. (2005) Achieving Best Practice in Your Business: High-Performance Work Practices - Linking Strategy and Skills to Performance. London: DTI in association with CIPD.
    Sung, J., Ashton, D. and Loke, F. (2012) ‘Skills and productivity in the manufacturing sector’, Research Report, Centre for Skills Performance and Productivity Research. Singapore: Institute of Adult Learning.
    Sung, J., Ashton, D. and Raddon, A. (2009a) ‘Product market strategies and workforce skills: Summary report,’ Futureskills Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. (Available at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/06/22085959/0, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Sung, J., Ashton, D. and Raddon, A. (2009b) ‘Product market strategies and workforce skills: Full report’, Futureskills Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. (Available at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/06/22085911/0, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Sung, J., Raddon, A. and Ashton, D. (2008) The Business Benefits of Training in the Food and Drink Manufacturing Industry. Leicester: CLMS, University of Leicester and Improve Ltd.
    Sung, J., Tan, T.K., Loke, F. and Cheah, D. (2013) Skills Utilisation 2: Jobs Skills and Job Quality in Singapore. Singapore: Institute for Adult Learning.
    Tamkin, P., Pearson, G., Hirsh, W. and Constable, S. (2010) Exceeding Expectation: The Principles of Outstanding Leadership. London: Work Foundation.
    Taylor, P. and Bain, P. (1999) ‘An assembly line in the head: Work and employment relations in a call centre’, Industrial Relations Journal, 30(2): 101–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2338.00113
    Teece, D.J., Pisano, G. (1994) ‘The dynamic capabilities of firms: An introduction’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 1: 537–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icc/3.3.537-a
    Teece, D.J., Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. (1997) ‘Dynamic capabilities and strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 18(7): 509–534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0266%28199708%2918:7%3C509::AID-SMJ882%3E3.0.CO;2-Z
    Tidd, J., Bessant, J. and Pavitt, K. (2005) Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change,
    3rd edn.
    Chichester: Wiley.
    Turner, H.A.F. (1962) Trade Union Growth Structure and Policy: A Comparative Study of the Cotton Unions. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    UK Commission for Employment and Skills (2009) The 2009 Report, Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs for the UK. Wath-upon-Dearne: UKCES.
    UK Commission for Employment and Skills (2012) ‘More employers investing in the skills of their people’. Wath-upon-Dearne: UKCES. (Available at http://www.ukces.org.uk/ourwork/outcome-one?Ref=emailanddm_i=2CU,VSA4,16AVQ1,2MHX5,1, accessed 28 April 2014).
    UK Commission for Employment and Skills (2014) ‘Employer skills survey 2013: Results’, Evidence Report 81. Wath-upon-Dearne: UKCES.
    van der Krogt, F. and Warmerdam, J. (1997) ‘Training in different types of organizations: Differences and dynamics in the organization of work’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(1): 87–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585199700000042
    Warhurst, C. and Findlay, P. (2012) ‘More effective skills utilisation: Shifting the terrain of skills policy in Scotland’, SKOPE Research Paper No. 107. Strathclyde: University of Sydney and University of Strathclyde.
    Waterman, R. and Peters, T. (1982) In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best Run Companies. Harper & Row: New York.
    Wernerfelt, B. (1984) ‘A resource-based view of the firm’. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2): 171–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250050207
    WERS (2013) The 2011 Workplace Employment Relations Study: First Findings. London: Department for Business Innovation and Skills.
    West, M. and Anderson, N. (1996) ‘Innovation in top management teams’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6): 680–693. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.6.680
    Westergaard-Nielson, N. (ed.) (2008) Low-Wage Work in Denmark. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Wickens, P. (1999) Energise Your Enterprise. London: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-14920-9
    Wilkinson, F. (1983) ‘Productive systems’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 7: 413–429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cje/7.3-4.413
    Wilkinson, F. (2002) ‘Productive systems and the structuring role of economic and social theories’, ESRC Centre for Business Research, Working Paper No. 225. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
    Willis, P. (1977) Learning to Labour. Farnborough: Saxon House.
    Wilson, J.F. and Thomson, A. (2006) The Making of Modern Management: British Management in Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261581.001.0001
    Wilson, R. and Hogarth, T. (eds) (2003) Tackling the Low Skills Equilibrium: A Review of Issues and Some New Evidence, Report for the Department of Trade and Industry. London: DTI.
    Wolf, A., Aspin, L., Waite, E. and Ananiadou, K. (2010) ‘The rise and fall of workplace basic skills programmes: Lessons for policy and practice’, Oxford Review of Education, 36(4): 385–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2010.494448
    Wolfi, A. (2003) ‘Productivity growth in service industries: An assessment of recent patterns and the role of measurement’, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Paper 2003/7. Paris: OECD. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/086461104618
    Womack, J.P., Jones, D.T., Roos, D. and Carpenter, D.S. (1990) The Machine That Changed the World: The Story of Lean Production - Toyota's Secret Weapon in the Global Car Wars That is Revolutionizing World Industry. New York: Free Press.
    Wood, S. and de Menezes, L. (2011) ‘High involvement management, high-performance work systems and well-being’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(7): 1586–1610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2011.561967
    Wood, S., Burridge, M., Green, W., Nolte, S. and Rudloff, D. (2013) ‘High-performance working in the employer skills surveys’, Evidence Report 71. Wath-upon-Dearne: UKCES.
    Woodward, J. (1958) Management and Technology: Problems and Progress in Technology. London: HMSO.
    World Trade Organization (2014) ‘The multilateral trading system - past, present and future’, The WTO in Brief: Part 1. Geneva: WTO. (Available at http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/inbrief_e/inbr01_e.htm, accessed 7 April 2014).
    Wright Mills, C. (1956) White Collar: The American Middle Classes. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Young, M. and Allais, S. (2011) Special Issue: ‘Implementing national qualifications frameworks across five continents’, Journal of Education and Work, 24(5): 209–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2011.584682
    Zee, F. and Brandes, F. (2007) ‘Manufacturing futures for Europe - a survey of the literature’, Foresight Briefing No. 137. European Foresight Monitoring Network.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website