Sexual Victimization: Then and Now

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Edited by: Tara N. Richards & Catherine D. Marcum

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  • Dedication

    I would like to dedicate this book to my nephews: Landon, Chase, and Wesley. Each of you continually surprise and amaze me.

    —Tara N. Richards

    I would like to dedicate this book to my goddaughters, Lydia and Katie. I look forward to seeing you grow and mature into beautiful and strong young women—I love you and am proud of you.

    —Catherine D. Marcum

    Copyright

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    Preface

    After almost three decades of activism and legal reform, the criminal justice system, with the help of non–criminal justice system partners, has made great strides regarding the handling of cases of sexual victimization, including how sexual victimization is defined, how evidence is collected, and how cases are prosecuted as well as how victims are treated by criminal justice system actors. Every state now includes rape and sexual assault in its penal code, and many states' definitions of forcible rape include language pertaining to diverse groups of victims, including special populations of victims such as prisoners and the elderly. In addition, many police departments now assist in the facilitation of victims' court advocates and counseling services post–sexual assault. However, there are still ways in which criminal justice practitioners, activists, and scholars could advance their understandings of sexual victimization and improve the treatment of victims as they move through the criminal justice process. This continuum of change, as well as the lack thereof, was inspiration for the development of this book. We as the editors felt as if the academic community, as well as practitioners, could benefit from a text that outlined the various facets of “then and now” in regard to sexual victimization as a whole.

    The purpose of this project is to produce a book that provides scholars easy access to information that specifically examines the continuum of change in the sexual victimization field. It is the desire of the editors to educate and enlighten a wide audience, from those who are completely unfamiliar with the topic to individuals who need more specific information on a particular type of sexual victimization. This text should be a useful guide to students, academics, and practitioners alike.

    Acknowledgments

    We would like to extend a huge thank you to all the contributors of this book. Your expertise in the field will provide enlightenment and insight to academics and students alike. All your hard work is appreciated.

    Thank you to Jerry Westby, MaryAnn Vail, and the staff at SAGE for their assistance and patience with the preparation of this manuscript. It was wonderful to work with a group of individuals who shared the same vision for this book. We hope it is a great success.

    Finally, thank you very much to the following reviewers of this text for their thoughts and insight on improving the book:

    • Kelley Christopher, University of West Georgia
    • Wendy Perkins Gilbert, Urbana University
    • Sheri Jenkins Keenan, Cameron University
    • Rebecca Loftus, Arizona State University
    • Stephanie P. Manzi, Roger Williams University
    • Christine L. McClure, Cape Cod Community College
    • Elizabeth Quinn, Fayetteville State University
    • Bradford W. Reyns, Weber State University
    • We hope you are pleased with the finished product.
  • About the Editors

    Tara N. Richards is an Assistant Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Baltimore. Dr. Richards earned her PhD in criminology from the University of South Florida in 2011. Her major research interests include violence against women; mental health, substance abuse, and trauma/violence; and evaluation research. Some of her most recent published work appears in Crime & Delinquency, Violence Against Women, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, and Women & Criminal Justice. She is the recipient of the 2011 American Society of Criminology Division on Women and Crime's Graduate Scholar Award and was honored by the University of South Florida's Department of Criminology with an Outstanding Criminology Ambassador Alumni Award for her policy-relevant scholarship concerning intimate-partner violence and her service to dating-violence prevention efforts among adolescents in the Tampa Bay, Florida, area.

    Catherine D. Marcum is an Assistant Professor of Justice Studies at Appalachian State University. She received her PhD in criminology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 2008. Her research interests and areas of publication include cybercrime victimization and offending, correctional issues, and sexual victimization.

    About the Contributors

    Kelsey Becker is an honors undergraduate at Appalachian State University, obtaining her BS in criminal justice. She is planning to pursue her graduate studies in criminal justice and research in the area of cybercrime.

    Amanda Burgess-Proctor is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Oakland University. She received her PhD from the Michigan State University School of Criminal Justice in 2008. Her primary research interests include feminist criminology, criminological theory, intimate-partner abuse, and U.S. crime and drug policy. Her research has appeared in Justice Quarterly, Journal of Crime & Justice, Feminist Criminology, Violence Against Women, and Violence and Victims.

    Shelly Clevenger is an Assistant Professor at Illinois State University. Her research area includes sexual offenses, the experiences of sexual-assault victims and significant others in the criminal justice system, and victims' rights. Dr. Clevenger teaches courses on victimology, sex offenders, and crime and behavior.

    Tammatha L. Clodfelter is an Assistant Professor at Appalachian State University. She earned her PhD in public policy with a concentration in justice policy from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Dr. Clodfelter's current research interests include interpersonal violence, the relationship between drug and alcohol consumption and crime, and policing.

    Leah E. Daigle is an Associate Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University. She received her PhD in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati. Her most recent research has centered on repeat sexual victimization of college women and the development and continuation of victimization across the life course. Dr. Daigle is coauthor of Criminals in the Making: Criminality Across the Life Course (second edition) and Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The Sexual Victimization of College Women, which was awarded the 2011 Outstanding Book Award by the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. She is also author of Victimology: A Text/Reader. Her research has appeared in peer-reviewed journals, including Justice Quarterly, Victims & Offenders, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, and Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

    Bonnie S. Fisher is a Professor in the School of Justice at the University of Cincinnati. She earned her PhD at Northwestern University. She was awarded the 2012 George Rieveschl Jr. Award for Creative and/or Scholarly Works from the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Fisher has coedited and coauthored a number of books, including Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention (Sage, 2010); The Dark Side of the Ivory Tower: Campus Crime as a Social Problem; Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The Sexual Victimization of College Women (Sage, 2010), which won the 2011 Outstanding Book Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences; and Campus Crime: Legal, Social and Policy Perspectives, now in its third edition. She also serves on the National Academy of Sciences panel on Measuring Rape and Sexual Assault in Bureau of Justice Statistics Household Surveys. Her more than 150 published articles and book chapters span the field of victimology, and her primary research area has been violence against women—from domestic violence to sexual assault—with an emphasis on college women.

    Tammy Garland is an Associate Professor at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, where she teaches courses in victimology, juvenile justice, media and crime, and drugs and crime. She received a PhD in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University in 2004. Dr. Garland's current research emphasis includes victimization of the homeless, women, and children; popular culture; and drug policy issues. Her publications can be found in American Journal of Criminal Justice, Criminal Justice Policy Review, Criminal Justice Studies, and Journal of Poverty.

    Lane Kirkland Gillespie is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Boise State University. She earned her PhD in criminology from the University of South Florida. Her research focuses on violence and victimization, including the relationship between gender and crime, intimate-partner violence, corporate victimization, and the role of the victim in criminal justice processes. Dr. Gillespie has recently been recognized by the Department of Criminology at the University of South Florida as an outstanding criminology ambassador. Her publications can be found in Feminist Criminology, Violence Against Women, and Homicide Studies.

    Xavier Guadalupe-Diaz is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at Framingham State University. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of Central Florida and his MS in sociology from Virginia Commonwealth University. His primary research focuses on various aspects of intimate-partner violence (IPV) within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) communities. Much of his work involves the community, including various stakeholders such as service organizations, providers, advocates, and activists. His dissertation research explored transgender experiences with IPV. This project sought to empower trans voices that have been historically marginalized or largely absent from the IPV literature and provided new insight into the unique realities of these survivors. His most recent publications have examined LGB perceptions of domestic violence law and the help-seeking behaviors of LGB victims of violence.

    Laura King is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at Boise State University, where she teaches courses primarily in research methods, statistical analysis, and victimization. She completed her PhD in criminology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. The majority of her research interests focus on sexual offending and victimization, with an emphasis on system responses to sex crimes, female sex offenders, sexual violence in correctional facilities, public opinion, advocacy, and underserved populations. Much of this research has been survey based and has been published in peer-reviewed journals or presented at national conferences. Dr. King conducts workshops on sexual violence as a part of Victims' Rights Week at Boise State University and for the Idaho Victim Assistance Academy, a statewide training program for criminal justice professionals.

    Sarah Koon-Magnin is an Assistant Professor at the University of South Alabama. She earned her PhD in crime, law, and justice from Pennsylvania State University in 2011. Her research interests include multiple aspects of sexual violence but focus primarily on the legal response to sexual offending and the victimization experience.

    Sadie Mummert is currently pursuing her PhD in criminal justice and criminology at Georgia State University. Her main research areas are sexual victimization, victims' rights, and intimate-partner violence. Her work has been published in Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, and International Criminal Justice Review.

    Christina Policastro is an Assistant Professor at Georgia Southern University. She received her PhD from Georgia State University in 2013. Dr. Policastro's research interests include elder abuse, intimate-partner violence, and victimization.

    Joan A. Reid is an Assistant Professor in the School of Criminology and Justice Studies at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. She earned her PhD in criminology from the University of South Florida in 2010. Her research concerns include human trafficking, sexual violence, child maltreatment, victimology, and the recovery of crime victims. For 10 years, Joan has counseled individuals recovering from sexual trauma, including youth in foster care and detained in juvenile justice facilities. She maintains her license as a mental health counselor as well as national certifications as a clinical mental health counselor and a rehabilitation counselor. Her research on human trafficking, sexual victimization, and child maltreatment has appeared in journals such as Child Maltreatment, Victims & Offenders, Criminal Justice and Behavior, and Violence and Victims.

    Lauren Restivo is a master's degree student in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Baltimore, where she also serves as a research assistant. She earned her BA in criminology from the University of Maryland in 2011. Lauren's research interests include intimate-partner violence, corrections, and the intersection of mental health and criminal justice.

    Heidi L. Scherer an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology & Criminal Justice at Kennesaw State University. She is currently working on research related to victimization risk of college students with disabilities. Dr. Scherer has worked on research projects related to victimization in the workplace, intimate-partner victimization among college students, and place-based management practices at apartment complexes. Her work has appeared in peer-reviewed publications including Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Women & Criminal Justice, and WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation.

    Jamie A. Snyder is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of West Florida. Dr. Snyder is currently working on research into the victimization of college students. Dr. Snyder has also been involved in research focusing on sexual harassment and victimization in the workplace, intimate-partner violence among college students, disabilities and victimization, and sexual victimization in the military. Her current research interests include victimization, college students, crime prevention, criminology, and problem-oriented policing.

    Christopher G. Urban is a first-year law student at Wayne State University. He received his BA in sociology from Oakland University in 2012.


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