Nontraditional Media in Marketing and Advertising


Robyn Blakeman

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To my husband, Russ, whose soul reflects the love of God


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    SAGE and the author gratefully acknolwedge the contributions of the following reviewers: H. Stuart Atkins, California State University, Fullerton; Barry Babin, Louisiana Tech University; Gregory G. De Blasio, Northern Kentucky University; Donna Leigh Bliss, University of Georgia; Robert S. Brown, Daniel Webster College; Shari Carpenter Eastern Oregon University; Yun Chu, Robert Morris University; Angie Corbo, Widener University; Kimberly J. Cowden, University of North Dakota; Georgiana Craciun, Slippery Rock University; Linden Dalecki, Pittsburg State University; Darrin C. Duber-Smith, Metropolitan State College of Denver; H. Rika Houston, California State University, Los Angeles; Bruce A. Huhmann, New Mexico State University; Stephen Koernig, DePaul University; Werner H. Kunz, University of Massachusetts Boston; Alexander V. Laskin, Quinnipiac University; Maria Mandel, Mobile Marketing Association North America, and AT&T AdWorks; Sarah Smith-Robbins, Indiana University; Leonard Steinhorn, American University; and Angie Yoo, William Paterson University.

  • Glossary

    • Advergaming: Advertising placed inside of video games that are purchased or provided for free, and played on a computer, television, or mobile device.
    • Advertising: Uses a promotional set of vehicles that the sponsoring brand employs to persuade, inform, entertain, and remind in order to build a lasting relationship with the intended target. It almost exclusively uses paid forms of nontraditional and mass media vehicles to clearly and creatively identify the sponsor of an advertised message.
    • Airborne Advertising: Also known as aerial advertising or skywriting, this low cost promotional vehicle uses exhaust from a plane to create white puffy letters. These mega-sized messages are difficult to ignore as there is no page to turn or remote to click. Other aerial advertising surfaces include hot air balloons.
    • Applications (Apps): Buttons that direct the mobile user to a specific Internet site.
    • Ambient Marketing: See Guerrilla Marketing.
    • Augmented Reality: Superimposes real-world images over digital images, text, and graphics to create a 3-D holographic image. It is rarely used to sell anything, playing a largely promotional role in the media mix. Its main job is to engage and extend the time the target spends with the brand.
    • Behavioristics: Behavioristic segmentation is basically a combination of all target data that help to determine the reasons why a person buys and how they purchase.
    • Big Idea: See unique selling proposition.
    • Blogs: An online discussion or information site publishing personal commentaries, diaries, and conversations between the seller of a product or service and multiple consumers.
    • Building Wraps: An advertisement printed on vinyl used as an enormous outdoor board that typically wraps around a building on two or more sides, and which often uses the building's windows in the design.
    • Business-to-Business Sales Promotions: Incentives offered to retailers to promote a certain brand over another.
    • Creative Brief: The first step in the communication process. The creative and media teams, along with any nontraditional media suppliers, use the brief as a springboard to determine what communication activities need to be accomplished. It is the creative brief that outlines how advertising efforts are to achieve the business directives laid out in the marketing plan.
    • Consumer-Generated Media: See User-Generated Content.
    • Cooperative Advertising: Usually partners two like brands to promote them together and also to share the cost of advertising.
    • Covert Marketing: See Stealth Marketing.
    • Cross Promotion: Entails a type of guerilla marketing where similar products are promoted together, which is a great way to bring attention to two or more brands at the same time.
    • Crowdsourcing: A way to gather information that uses the general public to inform on a brand, service, or current event.
    • Database Marketing: Messages that rely on a compilation of specific data to reach the right target audience with the right message are often referred to as database marketing. Uses prospected information that is gathered from search and purchase history, opt-in or e-mail lists, and demographic and psychographic information, to name just a few.
    • Demographics: Deals with individual target traits such as age, gender, income, marital status, level of education, and number of children in the household, to name just a few.
    • Digital Billboards: See Digital Out-Of-Home.
    • Digital Marketing: See Internet Marketing.
    • Digital Out-of-Home: Also known as digital billboards, these are electronic billboards that are not only creative but often interactive. A simple click of a mouse can quickly change or update images that once required a team of workers to create and build.
    • Direct Marketing: A promotion and communication strategy that allows you to target a specific market using different media in order to stimulate your customer's behavior in a way that you can measure, track, and analyze all the information involved in the process and store it on a database for future use.
    • Direct Premium: Premiums can be given away or offered at a discounted price. The premium may be included in the packaging known as a direct premium or offered as free gifts to the first one hundred store visitors. This type of premium is known as a traffic-builder.
    • Direct Response: A type of direct marketing, also known as relationship marketing, it is a great way to develop and maintain a relationship with the target over time. It ignores the middleman or retailer, allowing the manufacturer to interact and sell directly to the targeted audience. It is a great way to individualize mass media tactics, thus making it a great relationship-enhancing tool.
    • E-mail Marketing: This “opt in” or permission form of advertising is a great relationship building and maintenance tool. Permission means the targeted recipients have given their consent for a certain marketer to send them advertised materials. E-mail campaigns are a powerful and personal form of one-to-one marketing.
    • Emotional Purchases: Purchases such as jewelry, expensive cars, or digital equipment that do not sustain life, but they enhance it.
    • Engagement: Results when a brand interacts with the target by capturing their attention or by engaging them in a one-to-one conversation or activity.
    • Experiential Marketing: See Guerrilla Marketing.
    • Facebook: An interactive social media website where users can communicate visually through pictures or verbally through posted comments in real-time with friends, family, or a brand or service.
    • Freestanding Insert: A form of direct response, freestanding inserts are inserted into a newspaper after printing; these often four-color, single or double-sided inserts feature multiple coupons or offers.
    • Focus Group: A focus group is usually made up of 10 or 12 members of the researched targeted audience who are asked to interact with the brand or its advertised message in a controlled environment.
    • Geographics: Data that is used to determine where the target lives regionally, with additional breakdowns by state, city, and even zip code.
    • Grassroots Marketing: Brands built by word-of-mouth advertising.
    • Green Graffiti: A form of advertising that is all about cleaning a surface such as a street or sidewalk by placing a stencil down and using a power washer to clean away the dirt and grime, leaving a nice clean image or message behind.
    • Guerrilla Marketing: According to Jay Conrad Levinson, whose book popularized the term, it is “the unconventional way of performing promotional activities on a very low budget.”
    • Inbound Telemarketing: When consumers use a toll-free number to make a purchase.
    • Infomercial: An informative commercial that can be found on network and cable television, the radio, and on the Internet. Infomercials (usually 60 to 120 minutes long) are a fact-based type of advertising that drills the brand's message home with demonstrations, testimonials, and often a celebrity spokesperson.
    • In-game Advertising: See Advergaming.
    • Innovative Nontraditional Media: Those vehicles that do not fit snugly into any media mold but are visually and/or verbally eye catching.
    • Internet Marketing: Also known as digital marketing, it is the selling of brands or services via the Internet. Types of delivery to name just a few might include search, pay-per-click (ppc), augmented reality, banners, or even e-mail lists to engage the target.
    • Life Cycle Stage: The three stages a typical brand passes through, including new or introduction, mainstream or mature, and reinvention.
    • Location-Based Marketing: Location-based services using GPS technology to locate the target and send them promotions near their location.
    • Marketing: Defined by the American Marketing Association as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communication, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”
    • Marketing Mix: The specific type and number of vehicles that a company uses to control, orchestrate, and accomplish its business objectives. The five Ps of product, price, promotion, place (or distribution) and people and make up what is known as the marketing mix.
    • Marketing Plan: A company's business plan of action. A hefty sales-related document that varies in scope depending on the size of the company. Its purpose is to detail what the brand wants to accomplish, usually over the next fiscal year.
    • Media Mix: The individual vehicles a campaign uses to deliver their visual/verbal message, such as magazines, direct mail, or television.
    • Mobile Augmented Reality: See Augmented Reality.
    • Mobile Marketing: The selling or promotion of a brand or service through a mobile device that actively engages the target.
    • Nontraditional Media: Refers to vehicles that are used as an alternative choice to more traditional mass media vehicles directed at a mass audience such as print (newspaper and magazines) and broadcast (radio and television).
    • Online Video: An inexpensive way to bring television storytelling, product demonstrations, and testimonials to the web.
    • Outbound Telemarketing: A type of telemarketing where the call originates from a sales center.
    • Out-of-Home Advertising: Simply defined as anything seen outside of the home. The canvases most often associated with out-of-home include traditional and electronic billboards, wallscapes, and street furniture.
    • Pay-per-click ads: Simple text ads that are placed on one or more heavily visited websites. The ad's main goal is to attract enough attention to encourage the viewer to click on the ad and be immediately taken to the sponsoring website.
    • Pop-Up Stores: Also known as pop-ups, these are temporary retail stores that promote a product or service or are used as a way to sell seasonal products such as Christmas decorations or Halloween costumes.
    • Primary Market: The primary target market is those users/consumers currently using the product or service or those who are likely to use the product in the future.
    • Primary Media: Primary media vehicles are those mediums most likely to be seen by the target, or those vehicles that the target is exposed to the most often and where the most advertising dollars are dedicated.
    • Promoted Accounts: Accounts that Twitter puts at the top of the queue and, as such, a way for brands to gain more followers.
    • Promoted Trends: Puts a sponsored topic at the top of Twitter's “trending topics” box, which reflects the most-discussed topics on Twitter at any given time.
    • Promoted Tweets: Tweets that are ads. They show up at the top of searches on related topics, and at the top of a user's timeline when the user follows the account.
    • Promotional Mix: A combination of media vehicles used in a campaign that research demonstrates will both reach the target and accomplish the marketing objectives or goals.
    • Promotional Pricing: These short-term price reduction promotions are best known as sales.
    • Psychographics: Data that focuses on the target's lifestyle, attitudes, activities, and interests, and how this information affects the target's views on product repurchase.
    • Qualitative Research : Also known as inductive or secondary data, this type of research uses existing research and/or small groups of respondents to gather information that will not be analyzed using statistical techniques. This type of research assists in pinpointing any past trends or significant changes, or trends that are currently occurring in the marketplace, and to identify any emerging opportunities or threats to the brand.
    • Quantitative Research : Deductive research also known as primary research that is original or new data gathered by either the marketing or advertising team. This type of research uses a large sample of respondents in an attempt to find the answer(s) to a specific set of questions.
    • Quick Response Code: QR codes allow visitors to quickly and wirelessly connect to websites, and view photos or videos from a sponsoring advertiser.
    • Rational Purchases: Those purchases of products used on a day-to-day basis by the majority of the population such as food, cleaning products, and toiletries.
    • Referral Premium: A premium that rewards both new and existing customers.
    • Relationship Marketing: Also known as Direct Marketing, an ongoing association between the target and the brand.
    • Return on Engagement (ROE): All about developing a message that asks the target to do something (active) rather than just sitting back and listening (passive).
    • Return On Investment (ROI): A performance measure. Refers to whether the client's benefits outweigh the client's costs on their advertising efforts.
    • Rooftop Advertising: Rooftop advertising places bigger than life 3-D logos atop tall buildings where they can be seen for miles.
    • Sales Promotion: A sales tool that increases interest in a product or service in order to increase a brand's value and achieve a set of marketing objectives. Defined as media and non-media marketing pressure applied for a predetermined, limited period of time in order to stimulate trial, increase consumer demand, or improve product quality.
    • Search Engine Marketing (SEM): Where a brand pays a search engine company, such as Google or Yahoo to place their websites high in key word searches in order to increase the chances that the searcher will click on their site.
    • Search Engine Optimization (SEO): Ensures the website includes links to other relevant sites to increase target interest and knowledge.
    • Secondary Market: A secondary target audience encompasses those users/consumers most likely to purchase the product on behalf of the primary audience or those who influence the purchases of the primary audiences.
    • Secondary Media: Secondary media vehicles are used to support or expound on the messages conveyed in the primary vehicles.
    • SMS: Short Message Service. See Text Messaging.
    • Social Media: The visual/verbal sharing of thoughts and ideas with others having the same or similar interests that have been placed on the Internet by non-media professionals. See User-Generated Content and Consumer-Generated Media.
    • Stealth Marketing: Also known as undercover or ambush marketing, it is often misleading since the targeted consumer does not immediately realize that they are the recipient of a marketing message.
    • Street Marketing: Refers to specialized marketing techniques used in public places to promote a product or service in a personalized, yet often unconventional way.
    • Street Team: A team composed of a group of individuals who move among pedestrians to promote a product or service. It is an inexpensive way to get the brand into the target's hand and to personally deliver a message.
    • Supplemental Advertising: See Freestanding Insert.
    • Target Audience: Those persons who consumer research has determined are most likely to purchase the product or use the service.
    • Text Messaging: Also known as Short Message Service, it is the largest and most common form of mobile delivery.
    • Traditional Media: Vehicles directed at a mass audience such as print (newspaper and magazines) and broadcast (radio and television).
    • Traffic-builder: See Direct Premium.
    • Transit Advertising: Any brand-sponsored message appearing in or on public transportation (buses, taxis), on benches, in shelters, waiting areas, and terminals.
    • Tweets: Immediate updates, this is a great way to add a viral component and public relations boost to any campaign.
    • Twitter: The Internet's version of KISS—keep it simple stupid—allows consumers to interact with a brand, service, company, or other consumers in little bite-sized discussions.
    • Unique Selling Proposition: Is usually the key consumer benefit or the one feature/benefit combination that is either unique to the brand or can be positioned as unique through creative advertising efforts—also known as a Big Idea.
    • User-Generated Content (UGC): Also known as consumer-generated media (CGM), UGC is the visual/verbal sharing of thoughts and ideas with others having the same or similar interests that have been placed on the Internet by non-media professionals. See Social Media.
    • Viral E-Mails: E-mails that are unusual and creative enough that consumers and family, friends, or colleagues will want to pass them along, inundating other mailboxes with the messages.
    • Viral Marketing: Also known as word-of-mouth advertising, it is a message that is shared with others via the Internet or in person.
    • Viral Video: A video that is promoted through word of mouth.
    • Virtual Product Demonstrations: Demonstrations that give consumers an interactive chance to experience the brand and its many features before they buy.
    • Wallscape: A banner that is a huge out-of-home advertising vehicle that can be painted directly on vinyl, or onto the outside of a building, or hung off a structure.
    • Webinar: Used to inform, educate, and inspire participation. Before creating a webinar, determine what information your target audience needs to have in order to encourage the action(s) you want them to take.
    • Widgets: According to the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), widgets are “portable applications that allow both users and sites to have a hand in the content.” A web application that can be downloaded and placed into a web page, personal blog, or profile page that can be shared live with viewers, such as a local weather report.
    • Wikis: A collection of information posted on a website about a specific topic. Many are open to all willing to add content while others may require a membership to add information, which is usually made up of topic-qualified individuals.
    • Word of Mouth: See Viral Marketing.
    • YouTube: A video-sharing website.


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    About the Author

    Robyn Blakeman received her M.L.A. at Southern Methodist University and her B.A. at the University of Nebraska. She is an associate professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, where she teaches Advertising & Public Relations Design and Advertising Creative Strategy.

    Professor Blakeman began teaching advertising and graphic design in 1987, first with the Art Institute of Dallas and then as an assistant professor of advertising at Southern Methodist University, teaching both graphic and computer design. As an assistant professor of advertising at West Virginia University, Professor Blakeman developed the creative track in layout and design and was responsible for designing and developing the first online Integrated Marketing Communication Graduate program in the country.

    Professor Blakeman is the author of six other books:

    The Bare Bones of Advertising Print Design,

    Integrated Marketing Communication: Creative Strategy From Idea to Implementation,

    The Bare Bones Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communication,

    The Brains Behind Great Ad Campaigns,

    Advertising Campaign Design: Just the Essentials, and

    Strategic Uses of Alternative Media: Just the Essentials.

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