Groups in Community and Agency Settings
Publication Year: 2014
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Other Books in the Group Work Practice Kit[Page ii]
What Is Group Work? (9781483332314)
Effective Planning for Groups (9781483332307)
How to Form a Group (9781483332291)
Groups: Fostering a Culture of Change (9781483332284)
How to Select and Apply Change Strategies in Groups (9781483332277)
How to Help Leaders and Members Learn from Their Group Experience (9781483332260)
How Leaders Can Assess Group Counseling (9781483332253)
Group Work in Schools (9781483332239)[Page iii]
[Page iv]In memory of my mother and father, Salma and Mohsin Kapadia
—Niloufer M. Merchant
In memory of my mother and father, Mary and Thomas Murray
—Carole J. Yozamp
… who inspired us to pursue our education and believe in our dreams!
Copyright © 2014 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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We would like to thank Katie Gunderson-Eccleston for assisting us with the many detailed tasks for the book. We thank our families, who were patient and supportive during the writing of this book. Most important, we thank Bob Conyne for the opportunity to share our experience and passion related to group work.[Page xii]
As limited resources impact communities and the services provided, groups will continue to grow in popularity as a cost-effective means to provide prevention, intervention, and post-intervention treatment. As described in detail throughout the book, effective implementation of groups can be accomplished by following the three Ps delineated in the ASGW Best Practice Guidelines (Thomas & Pender, 2008): planning (assessing need and identifying group goals, structure, resources, member screening, and facilitators), performing (generating meaning and therapeutic conditions necessary to maximize the group experience), and processing (the reflective practice of processing group workings with members, supervisors, and colleagues, essential to evaluation and group outcome). Groups are an effective means to bring people together to solve problems, support one another, and accomplish tasks while providing safety and a sense of belonging. The ASGW Multicultural and Social Justice Competence Principles for Group Workers (Singh, Merchant, Skudrzyk, & Ingene, 2012) provide a framework for culturally responsive group work application with diverse populations.
What is in store for the future of group work? As the world advances in technology, new problems will continue to emerge, such as cyberbullying and online access to harmful substances or predators. New technology requires a different means of intervention to reach tech-savvy individuals. It may mean that practitioners have a more immediate means to connect with group members outside of the actual group meeting.
Political decisions have a tremendous impact on health care, the military, financial supports, and strategies to help people. If institutions and agencies do not support prevention programs and health insurance does not cover treatment unless it has been diagnosed as a specific disorder, we may be missing opportunities to detect and treat problems before they become life threatening. The decision to send men and women into combat increases the likelihood that they will return with trauma-related issues. This concern will increase the need for services specific to this population. The economy has made it difficult to seek employment, while others have lost jobs. This has increased problems such as substance abuse, depression, and anxiety. Financial restraints have impacted states and counties, limiting their ability [Page 52]to fund services for adults, adolescents, and children with mental health concerns. With the increase in need and the lack of funding, many individuals will go without the assistance they require. Groups are a cost-efficient measure to meet the growing demand for these services.
As stated earlier, groups can sometimes be blurred depending on the type of setting and the approach used by group facilitators or members. Research is difficult, because there is disagreement as to the objective assessment of efficacy. Moreover, there is often a dichotomy between academic theory and clinical practice. Oftentimes, what is learned in the classroom is not practical in an agency setting. These areas of concern provide an opportunity to bridge academics with practice by following the ASGW framework of professional training standards, which define the knowledge, skills, and experiences necessary to do group work. These concepts give rise to the evolution under way to make group work training more consistent with the growing intensity and diversity of demands for group work practice.
As an academic (Merchant) and practitioner (Yozamp) in the field of counseling, we hope that you will appreciate not only the importance of applying academics to group work but also the equal necessity to modify academics based on what works in clinical practice.
Learning Activities[Page 53]Chapter 2: Prevention Groups
Chapter 3: Groups in Remedial Treatment Settings
- Think about what prevention groups were offered in your junior high or high school. What kind of prevention group was it, and how did it benefit the participants as well as the school?
- Explore the timeline of how prevention groups have changed. For instance, what kinds of topics and groups were offered in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and in the past 10 to 15 years? Do you see a change in the type of prevention groups offered over the years?
- Check out what types of wellness programs are available on your campus and in your community. Are any of those programs group based? If so, what type of group, as defined by the Association for Specialists in Group Work, would it fall under?
- Research the long-term effectiveness of popular prevention groups—for example D.A.R.E. (Drug Awareness Resource Education), antibullying groups, and so on.
- Assume that you are going to implement an after-school group for adolescents in a low-income housing complex. What type of group would you set up, and what multicultural and social justice issues are likely to be addressed in such a setting?
Chapter 4: Support and Self-Help Groups
- Assume that you are in an inpatient hospital treatment setting for mental health issues and are asked to implement a group for clients who are depressed or have suicidal ideation. What type of group would you set it up as, and what are some key planning, performing, and processing issues you would consider?
- How would you deal with a group member who is unresponsive to group interventions and process?[Page 54]
- How would you determine whether the group is effective or not?
- Identify three types of agencies or settings that offer remedial groups in your community.
- What motivating factors might prompt a person to join a support group?
- As a group facilitator, what therapeutic factors would you want to develop in a support group?
- Find an open self-help group in your community and attend a session (after obtaining appropriate permission). What type of ideology does that self-help group promote?
- What types of support groups and self-help groups are offered on your campus and in your community? Are the self-help and support groups described in distinct ways, or are they considered to be one and the same?
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About the Authors[Page 63]
Niloufer M. Merchant, EdD, LP, NCC, has been a professor in the Community Psychology undergraduate and Community Counseling graduate programs at St. Cloud State University (SCSU) since 1991. She is an active member of the American Counseling Association (ACA) and Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW), a division of ACA. She served as president of ASGW in 2011–2012. She has held other leadership positions, including department chair (2004–2010), board president for the Multicultural Center of Central Minnesota (2005–2007), interim director of the SCSU Women's Center (2002–2003), and interim cultural diversity director for St. Cloud School District (1999–2000). Merchant is a licensed psychologist and national certified counselor, providing clinical and consulting services in the community. She also provides in-services and trainings in the area of cultural competence. Her scholarship and interest areas include group work, multicultural counseling and competence, women's issues, mindfulness-based practices, and social justice issues. She is coauthor of the ASGW Multicultural and Social Justice Competence Principles for Group Workers (2012).
Carole J. Yozamp, MS, LPC, was employed as a clinical manager/therapist in residential treatment at the St. Cloud Children's Home in St. Cloud, Minnesota, starting in 2005. Recently, Yozamp accepted a new position as staff psychotherapist at a partial mental health hospitalization program for adolescents. Carole is a licensed professional counselor with a master of science in community psychology and criminal justice. She has an extensive work history with the University of Minnesota Extension Service and the Minnesota Department of Corrections. She is a skilled individual, family, and group facilitator.