Counseling Students in Levels 2 and 3: A PBIS/RTI Guide
Publication Year: 2013
This book seeks to offer a user-friendly, practical guide on school-based mental health counseling approaches for K-12 school counselors, psychologists, and other mental health professionals. Highlighting best practices, this book will explain how these educators can provide counseling in the secondary and tertiary prevention levels of the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Response to Intervention (RTI) frameworks. Informative and research-based, this book is tailored for busy professionals.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Integrated School Mental Health Programming
- Educating Students with Mental Health Issues
- Mental Health Needs of Students
- Understanding and Supporting Students with Unique Needs
- School Mental Health Legislation
- Prevention and Early Intervention
- Comprehensive Mental Health Services in Schools
- Models of School Mental Health Programming
- The ASCA Model
- PBIS and RTI
- Common Goals of NCLB, ASCA, IDEA, and PBIS/RTI
- School Mental Health Competencies
- Roles and Responsibilities of School Mental Health Professionals
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 2: The Need for Mental Health Counseling in Schools
- School-Based Counseling within an Integrative Framework
- Benefits of School-Based Counseling
- Limitations of School-Based Counseling
- Planning for Counseling Services
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 3: Counseling Students within the Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Levels
- The Role of RTI in the Provision of Counseling Services
- Three Levels of Prevention
- The Counselor's Role at the Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Level
- Coordinating with an RTI Team
- Phase 1: Identifying and Assessing At-Risk Students
- Phase 2: Defining the Problem Behavior
- Phase 3: Exploring Possible Solutions and Developing an Intervention Plan
- Phase 4: Acting on the Chosen Solution (Implementing the Counseling Solution)
- Phase 5: Looking Back and Evaluating the Effects (Progress Monitoring)
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 4: Counseling Students within Special Education
- Educational Programming for Special Education Students
- The Role of School Counselors and Mental Health Professionals
- Direct and Indirect Influence of Interventions
- Educating in the Least Restrictive Environment
- Counseling as a Related Service
- Mental Health Diagnostic Considerations
- Neurobiological Factors
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Diagnostic Labels
- Avoiding Generalizations and Assumptions About a Child's Diagnosis
- Talking to Parents, Children, and Adolescents About a Diagnostic Label or Disability
- Counseling Children and Adolescents with Disabilities
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 5: Effective and Efficient Counseling Approaches for School Settings
- Psychoeducational Approaches
- Managing Academic Frustration: An Individualized Session with a Sixth-Grade Boy
- Discussion Questions
- Recommended Sources for Further Information About Psychoeducational Approaches in Schools
- Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
- Implementation of a CBT School-Based Program in a Large Urban School District
- Implementing CBT Interventions Pragmatically in Schools
- Managing Difficult Emotions: CBT with a First-Grade Boy
- Discussion Questions
- Recommended Sources for Further Information About CBT in Schools
- Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
- SFBT with an Adolescent Female with Depressive Symptoms
- Discussion Questions
- Recommended Sources for Further Information About SFBT in Schools
- Chapter 6: Evidence-Based Counseling in Schools
- Effectiveness of Counseling in Schools
- Techniques Grounded in Theory
- Techniques Grounded in Theory and Practice
- Contrasting the Definitions of Evidence-Based Counseling
- Special Topics in School Counseling
- Group Counseling
- Play Therapy
- Counseling Young Children
- Counseling Diverse Populations
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 7: Developing and Assessing Counseling Interventions
- The Role of Assessment within Data-Based Decision Making
- Defining the Target Behavior
- Functional Behavioral Assessment
- Types of FBA
- Conducting the FBA
- Identifying the Function of Behavior
- Selecting a Replacement Behavior
- Developing Individualized Student Goals and Objectives
- Present Level of Performance (PLP)
- Developing Behavioral Goals and Objectives
- Measuring Response to Intervention Through Single-Case Design
- A-B Design
- A-B-A Design
- A-B-A-B Design
- Multiple Baseline Design
- Alternating Treatments Design
- Changing Criterion Design
- Evaluating Outcomes
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 8: Case Studies
- Case 1: The Problem-Solving Process within the Case of a Fifth Grader with Angry, Aggressive, Externalizing Behaviors
- Background Information
- Problem Identification
- Problem Definition
- Intervention Development
- Plan Implementation
- Treatment Evaluation
- Case Discussion
- Discussion Questions
- Case 2: Intensive Tertiary School-Based Services for a Ninth Grader with Acute School Refusal Associated with Social Anxiety
- Background Information
- Problem Identification
- Problem Definition
- Intervention Development
- Plan Implementation
- Treatment Evaluation
- Case Discussion
- Discussion Questions
- School-Based Counseling Across Developmental Phases
- Case 3: Social Skills Training and Counseling Across Developmental Phases for a Student with High-Functioning Autism
- Background Information
- Elementary School
- Middle School
- High School
- Case Discussion
- Discussion Questions
- Case 4: Supportive Interventions for a Student with Both Learning and Emotional-Behavioral Problems
- Background Information
- Elementary School
- Middle School
- High School
- Case Discussion
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 9: Developing Clinical Skills
- Using Evidence-Based Methods and Common Factors in Counseling
- The Therapeutic Relationship
- Role and Function of Therapist: Theoretical Orientation
- Using Strategies and Techniques within the Therapeutic Structure and Process
- Strategies and Techniques in Therapy
- Creativity and Improvisation in Therapy
- Characteristics of Master Therapists
- Counselor Development and Growth
- Self-Awareness as a Counselor
- Developing a Personal and Professional Growth Plan
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 10: Special Topics in School-Based Counseling
- Best Practices and Emerging Models for Difficult Service Delivery Areas
- Family Support Services
- Medication Management in Schools
- Substance Abuse Counseling
- Other Important Topics in School-Based Counseling
- Social Skills Programs
- Vocational Counseling
- Counseling Vulnerable Populations
- Program Development and Funding
- Discussion Questions
Copyright © 2013 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
All trade names and trademarks recited, referenced, or reflected herein are the property of their respective owners who retain all rights thereto.
A SAGE Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Printed in the United States of America
A catalog record of this book is available from the Library of Congress.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
13 14 15 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Allan
Associate Editor: Kimberly Greenberg
Editorial Assistant: Heidi Arndt
Permissions Editor: Karen Ehrmann
Project Editor: Veronica Stapleton Hooper
Copy Editor: Terri Lee Paulsen
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Dennis W. Webb
Indexer: Karen Wiley
Cover Designer: Anupama Krishnan
In recent years, research and legislation has increasingly sought to improve students’ learning and socialization by seeking ways to improve mental health services in schools. There are a variety of evidence-based interventions and programs available for school practitioners at the universal (i.e., service to all or many), selected (i.e., service to some), and indicated (i.e., service to few) prevention levels. This book focuses on utilizing counseling as an intervention for students who require extensive support within the secondary (i.e., selected) and tertiary (i.e., indicated) prevention levels of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Response to Intervention (RTI). Only a cursory view of school-based counseling at the universal or primary level of prevention is included. There are other sources (referred to in this book) that provide in-depth coverage of primary prevention approaches to school-based mental health services.
Our major aim is to explore the role of counseling within integrated school mental health programming based on best practices in current research and practice. From the perspective of comprehensive school mental health service delivery, we apply PBIS/RTI as an organizing framework from which to provide integrative school mental health programming. Within this context, we focus specifically on utilizing counseling as an intervention for students who require extensive support.
This book is most relevant for school mental health professionals, such as counselors, school psychologists, and social workers, who provide counseling and psychological services. It is also intended to be a useful resource for school administrators; special education directors; psychological service directors; clinical supervisors; school mental health liaisons; university faculty who teach coursework in counseling, psychology, and/or special education; students being trained in the fields of counseling, psychology, and/or special education; and other stakeholders who are interested in developing and improving school-based mental health service delivery.
Progressive service delivery models require data-based outcomes for those children who are experiencing social-emotional-behavioral challenges in school. This book provides guidance for school mental health professionals [Page xii]to adapt their practices to the changing landscape associated with effective educational outcomes and accountability. Special attention is given to practical and useful techniques that can be carried out as intended and with high levels of acceptability by providers and stakeholders. Additionally, this book expounds on professional growth and development as a counselor during a time when outcomes and accountability must be examined and documented within school-based practice.
This book is divided into two major parts. In Part I, we examine the role of responsive school-based counseling in PBIS/RTI. We emphasize collaborative approaches and view PBIS/RTI as a joint initiative of general education and special education. RTI is designed to help students be successful in the general education curriculum. As such, RTI should increase the accuracy of special education referrals. We intend for Part I to serve as a guide for school practitioners who provide evidence-based counseling services within PBIS/RTI. We examine considerations for service delivery for students in both general education and special education. Part II focuses on related topics, including advancing one's clinical skills in counseling, professional development, and emerging models for difficult service delivery areas in school mental health.
Discussion questions are provided for each chapter. In the Resources section we have included sample forms (e.g., “Intervention Planning Form”), lists of further resources—such as a list of books and websites for counselors, students, and parents—and a counselor self-evaluation survey and professional growth plan form. We hope this book provides a useful and accessible guidebook for counselors, school psychologists, other mental health professionals, and other school personnel who work tirelessly to meet the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of their students.
We wish to thank our acquisitions editor, Jessica Allan, for her work, insightful considerations, and support in bringing this book to reality. We also wish to acknowledge the contribution of our advisory board. Their input was exceedingly helpful in improving the content, organization, and usefulness of chapters. Finally, we thank all of the children and families that each of us has worked with in the past. Those experiences helped to motivate us to write this book for our colleagues working in the field.Publisher's Acknowledgments
Corwin wishes to acknowledge the following peer reviewers for their editorial insight and guidance.
- Jennifer Betters
- School Counselor
- Verona Area School District
- Verona, Wisconsin
- Janet Slowman Chee
- School Psychologist and Chief of Planning
- Tsehootsoi Medical Center
- Fort Defiance, Arizona
- Karen M. Joseph
- School Counselor
- Roberto Clemente Middle School,
- Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland
- Germantown, Maryland
- Diana Joyce
- Psychologist, Associate Scholar
- University of Florida
- Gainesville, Florida
- Neil MacNeill
- Ellenbrook Primary School
- Ellenbrook, Western Australia, Australia
- Katy Olweiler
- Lakeside School
- Seattle, Washington
- Diane P. Smith
- School Counselor
- Smethport Area School District
- Smethport, Pennsylvania
About the Authors
Resource A: Treatment Integrity Checklist[Page 181][Page 182]
Resource B: Intervention Planning Form[Page 183]
[Page 187][Page 188]
Resource C: Resources for Counselors, Students, and Parents[Page 189]Resources for Counselors—Publishing Companies, Manuals, Curricula, Counseling Forms, Books, Dvds/Multimedia, Child Therapy Toys and GamesBoys Town Press (http://www.boystownpress.com)The Bureau for At-Risk Youth (http://www.at-risk.com)Center for School Mental Health Analysis and ActionChildswork Childsplay (http://www.childswork.com)Child Therapy Toys (http://www.childtherapytoys.com)Counseling Forms Online (http://www.CounselingFormsOnline.com)Courage to Change (http://www.couragetochange.com)Creative Therapy Store (http://www.creativetherapystore.com/)James Stanfield (http://www.stanfield.com)MindWare (http://www.mindware.com)Psychology Tools (http://www.psychologytools.org/cbt.html)The School Counselor Toolkit (http://www.School-Counselor.org)[Page 190]Social Skills Central (http://www.socialskillscentralstore.com)The Therapy Shoppe (http://www.therapyshoppe.com)Whole Person Associates (http://www.wholeperson.com)Books for Children and Adolescents with AutismThe Aspie Teen's Survival Guide: Candid Advice for Teens, Tweens, and Parents, From a Young Man With Asperger's Syndrome, by J. D. Kraus; Age Level: Teens and tweensCan I Tell You About Asperger Syndrome?: A Guide for Friends and Family, by Jude Welton; Age Level: 7–15Freaks, Geeks & Asperger Syndrome: A User Guide to Adolescence, by Luke Jackson; Age Level: TeensKeisha's Doors/las Puertas De Keisha: An Autism Story/una Historia De Autismo Libro Uno (Spanish and English Edition), by Marvie Ellis (Author) and Jenny Loehr (Illustrator); Age Level: Young childrenLook Me in the Eye: My Life With Asperger's, by John Elder Robison; Age Level: Teens and upMy Social Stories Book by Carol Gray; Age Level: 9 and upThe New Social Story Book, by Carol Gray; Age Level: Elementary school agePreparing for Life: The Complete Guide for Transitioning to Adulthood for Those With Autism and Asperger's Syndrome, by Jed Baker; Age Level: 16 and upSince We're Friends: An Autism Picture Book, by Celeste Shally and David Harrington; Age Level: Preschool through second gradeSocial Skills Picture Book for High School and Beyond, by Jed Baker; Age Level: Teens and upTacos Anyone? An Autism Story (English and Spanish Text) (Spanish and English Edition), by Marvie Ellis (Author) and Jenny Loehr (Illustrator); Age Level: Young childrenTake Control of Asperger's Syndrome: The Official Strategy Guide for Teens With Asperger'sSyndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disorders, by Janet Price and Jennifer Engel Fisher; Age Level: 10 and up[Page 191]What It Is to Be Me!: An Asperger Kid Book, by Angela Wine; Age Level: 4 and upBooks for Children and Adolescents (ADHD, Social-Emotional Concerns, Trauma, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse)The ADHD Workbook for Teens: Activities to Help You Gain Motivation and Confidence, by Lara Honos-Webb; Age Level: 13 and upAnger and Anger Management (Teen Mental Health), by Charlie Quill; Age Level: 12 and upAntisocial Behavior (Teen Mental Health), by Frank Spalding; Age Level: 12 and upAnxiety and Panic Attacks (Teen Mental Health), by Judith Levin; Age Level: 12 and upBeyond the Blues: A Workbook to Help Teens Overcome Depression, by Lisa Schab, Age Level: 13 and upCoping With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Dealing With Tragedy, by Carolyn Simpson and Dwain Simpson; Age Level: 12 and upDepression, Anger, Sadness: Teens Write About Facing Difficult Emotions, by Al Desetta, Keith Hefner, and Laura Longhine; Age Level: 14 and upDepression and Mood Disorders (Teen Mental Health), by Judith Levin; Age Level: 12 and upDrugs and Mental Illness (Drug Abuse Prevention Library), by Maia Miller; Age Level: 12 and upInvestigating Depression and Bipolar Disorder: Real Facts for Real Lives (Investigating Diseases), by Abigail Meisel; Age Level: 14 and upMind Race: A Firsthand Account of One Teenager's Experience With Bipolar Disorder, by Patrick E. Jamieson and Moira A. Rynn; Age Level: 12 and upMonochrome Days: A First-Hand Account of One Teenager's Experience With Depression, by Cait Irwin, Dwight L. Evans M.D., and Linda Wasmer Andrews; Age Level: TeensObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Teen Mental Health), by Sandra Giddens; Age Level: 12 and up[Page 192]A Terrible Thing Happened—A story for children who have witnessed violence or trauma, by Margaret H. Holmes, Sasha J. Mudlaff, and Cary Pillo; Age Level: 4 and upUp and Down the Worry Hill: A Children's Book About Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Its Treatment, by Aureen Pinto Wagner; Age Level: 4 and upWhat to Do When Your Temper Flares: A Kid's Guide to Overcoming Problems With Anger, by Dawn Huebner and Bonnie Matthews; Age Level: 8 and upWhat to Do When Your Brain Gets Stuck: A Kid's Guide to Overcoming OCD, by Dawn Huebner and Bonnie Matthews; Age Level: 8 and upWhat to Do When You Worry Too Much: A Kid's Guide to Overcoming Anxiety, by Dawn Huebner and Bonnie Matthews; Age Level: 6 and upTherapeutic Books for Children (Publishing Companies)Books for Parents About Childhood and Adolescent Autism1001 Great Ideas for Teaching and Raising Children With Autism or Asperger's, Revised and Expanded 2nd Edition, by Ellen Notbohm and Veronica ZyskAsperger's Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professionals, by Anthony AttwoodFacing Autism: Giving Parents Reasons for Hope and Guidance for Help, by Lynn M. HamiltonHelping Your Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Step-By-Step Workbook for Families, by Stephanie B. Lockshin, Jennifer M. Gillis, and Raymond G. RomanczykParenting Your Asperger Child: Individualized Solutions for Teaching Your Child Practical Skills, by Alan Sohn and Cathy Grayson[Page 193]A Parent's Guide to Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism, by Sally Ozonoff, Geraldine Dawson, and James McPartlandA Parent's Guide to Autism: Answers to the Most Common Questions, by Charles A. HartBooks for Parents About Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety, OCD, Depression, Mood Instability, Schizophrenia, and Substance UseThe ADD & ADHD Answer Book: Professional Answers to 275 of the Top Questions Parents Ask, by Susan AshleyAdolescent Depression: A Guide for Parents (A Johns Hopkins Press Health Book), by Espen J. AarsethAdolescent Drug & Alcohol Abuse: How to Spot it, Stop it, and Get Help for Your Family, by Nikki BabbitAnxiety-Free Kids: An Interactive Guide for Parents and Children, by Bonnie ZuckerFreeing Your Child From Anxiety: Powerful, Practical Solutions to Overcome Your Child's Fears, Worries, and Phobias, by Tamar E. ChanskyIf Your Adolescent Has Depression or Bipolar Disorder: An Essential Resource for Parents (Adolescent Mental Health Initiative), by Dwight L. Evans M.D. and Linda Wasmer AndrewsIf Your Adolescent Has Schizophrenia: An Essential Resource for Parents, by Raquel Gur and Ann Braden JohnsonParenting Children With ADHD: 10 Lessons That Medicine Cannot Teach, by Vincent J. MonastraRescuing Your Teenager From Depression, by Norman T. BerlingerSurvival Strategies for Parenting Children With Bipolar Disorder: Innovative Parenting and Counseling Techniques for Helping Children With Bipolar Disorder and the Conditions That May Occur With It, by George T. LynnTalking Back to OCD, by John S. MarchWhat to Do When Your Child Has Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, by Aureen Pinto WagnerSupport for Parents and Families of Children with Disabilities[Page 195]Attention Deficit Disorder Association (http://www.add.org/)AutismWeb: A Parent's Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders (http://www.autismweb.com/)Children and Adults With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (http://www.chadd.org)Children's Disabilities Information (http://www.childrensdisabilities.info/)http://ED.gov U.S. Department of Education (http://www2.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/edpicks.jhtml)LD Online (http://www.ldonline.org/)National Alliance on Mental Illness (http://www.nami.org)National Center for Learning Disabilities (http://www.ncld.org/)National Resources for Parents of Children and Youth With Disabilities (http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Parents/naparent.html)Support for Families of Children With Disabilities (http://www.supportforfamilies.org/internetguide/)
Resource D: Evidence-Based Interventions, Programs, and Manuals
Blueprints for Violence Prevention: Model Programs. This resource from the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado Boulder highlights model intervention programs that prevent violence. This website provides a brief summary of each intervention program, a video segment describing each program, and contact information to get more information about the program. A strong research design, sustained effect, and multiple site replication of the evidence-based violence deterrent effects is represented in these “Model” programs. (http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/modelprograms.html)
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL): 2013 CASEL Guide. This resource identifies well-designed, evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs that have a strong likelihood of broad dissemination in schools. The CASEL Guide also shares best practices for district and school teams on how to select and implement SEL programs. (http://casel.org/guide/)
Empirically Supported Interventions in School Mental Health. The Center for School Mental Health Assistance (2002; CSMHA) provides a list of evidence-based treatments that can be adapted for use in schools. (http://csmh.umaryland.edu/Resources/ResourcePackets/files/empiricallysupported.pdf)
Evidence-Based Mental Health Treatment for Children and Adolescents by APA Division 53. This website presents mental health treatments that have the strongest scientific support and are most likely to work. The specific, manualized treatment programs are organized by mental health [Page 196]disorders (e.g., depression, ADHD) for professionals. In addition, a section for parents provides a general overview of different types of psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavior therapy, family therapy). (http://www.effectivechildtherapy.com)
National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention. The goal of this website is to provide technical assistance (TA) and training to school districts and communities that receive grants from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, and Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Products and services that help to plan, implement, evaluate, and sustain activities that foster resilience, promote mental health, and prevent youth violence and mental and behavioral disorders are featured. (http://www.promoteprevent.org/about/tacenter)
National Child Traumatic Stress Network Empirically Supported Treatments and Promising Practices. This website presents facts pertaining to clinical treatment and trauma-informed service approaches implemented by National Child Traumatic Stress Network centers. The goal of these interventions is to reduce the impact of exposure to traumatic events on children and adolescents. (http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/treatments-that-work/promising-practices)
Promising Practices Network on Children, Families, and Communities: What Works for Children and Families. This website presents programs that have been documented as having ratings meeting the criteria for a “Proven” or “Promising” approach to improve the lives of children and families. Research information pertaining to children's well-being, academic success, and economic security are featured. The purpose of this website is to promote the successful implementation of best practices and model programs. (http://www.promisingpractices.net/default.asp)
SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a searchable online registry of mental health and substance abuse interventions that have been reviewed for evidence of effectiveness. This registry helps identify scientifically based approaches to preventing and treating mental disorders. (http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/)
School Psychiatry Program and MADI Resource Center; Massachusetts General Hospital. This website was created for parents, educators, and clinicians working to support children and adolescents with mental health conditions. The site provides general school-based intervention strategies when [Page 197]working with those diagnosed with depression, bipolar disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (http://www.schoolpsychiatry.org)
What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). As an initiative of the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES), the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) was created in 2002 to be a central and trusted source of scientific evidence for what works in education. WWC reviews evidence for student behavior interventions including programs, curricula, and practices whose purpose is to foster positive behavioral outcomes. (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/)[Page 198]
Resource E: ABC Observation Form[Page 199][Page 200]
Resource F: Daily Behavior Rating Form (Teacher)[Page 201][Page 202]
Resource G: Counselor Self-Evaluation Survey[Page 203]
Instructions: Rate yourself on each of the following items based on what you perceive as your relative strengths and weaknesses as a counselor. This is not to be a comparison rating with other counselors, but rather a rating of one's own relative strengths and weaknesses. The purpose of this survey is to facilitate self-reflection and self-awareness to identify personal strengths as well as areas that can be targeted for additional growth. After completing, follow the scoring instructions at the end of the survey.
Enter number in blank: 1 = Significant weakness for me
- 2 = Relative weakness for me
- 3 = Relative strength for me
- 4 = Significant strength for me
- I am knowledgeable in the code of ethics of my credentialing/licensing agency as well as state and federal laws applicable to the provision of mental health services.
- I regularly plan counseling sessions. For example, I plan activities and lessons and may use curricula, manuals, or books to assist me.
- During assessment, I explore the potential impact of setting variables (e.g., classroom, home, peers, community, events) on the client's behavior.
- I seek clients’ input (or team members’ input when client is a young child) to assist in developing relevant counseling goals.
- I am generally optimistic about the usefulness of counseling.[Page 204]
- I have supportive relationships outside of work.
- I stay apprised of the research and recommendations for evidence-based practices.
- I am knowledgeable regarding diagnostic considerations, such as formal diagnostic criteria (DSM and special education definitions), differential diagnoses, and comorbidities.
- I seek opportunities for professional growth through workshops, conferences, and other learning opportunities.
- I am accepting and nonjudgmental with clients.
- I live a healthy lifestyle (e.g., sleep, diet, exercise, manage health care needs).
- I measure clients’ present levels of performance to establish a baseline.
- I implement evidence-based interventions in counseling.
- I can explain how my theoretical orientation guides my counseling.
- I provide clear direction and guidance regarding the counseling process with clients. For example, I clearly explain and clarify the goals and expectations for counseling.
- I am genuine and authentic in my interactions with clients. I am free to be myself within the appropriate boundaries of the therapeutic relationship.
- I am flexible with clients and recognize what's really important in the moment. I am able to shift gears and address the felt needs of the client even when it might take us away from the planned session.
- I share relevant and useful strategies with teachers/school personnel to promote the generalization of skills students learn in counseling to the natural setting.
- I seek help when I'm experiencing personal or professional problems.
- I behave professionally in my work setting. I am careful not to engage in inappropriate types of behaviors that may negatively impact my reputation or erode trust with clients or coworkers.
- I use (or implement) counseling techniques skillfully.
- I instill hope in my clients.[Page 205]
- I have a healthy sense of humor and try not to take myself too seriously.
- I facilitate collaboration between multiple settings. For example, I provide information to parents regarding resources in the school and/or community and offer assistance in establishing connections when needed.
- I am knowledgeable in (and carefully consider) the potential influence of cultural variables in assessment and treatment.
- I use multiple methods to measure clients’ progress.
- I can implement a wide repertoire of well-developed counseling techniques and methods.
- I have a solid understanding of a variety of seminal theoretical orientations to guide my understanding and practice of psychological counseling.
- I am self-aware in my interactions with clients. I seek to understand how my attitudes and behaviors may influence clients.
- I develop clear and measurable counseling goals.
- I know which theoretical orientations are most appropriate to guide my counseling based on the client's context.
- I often genuinely experience eager anticipation regarding a client's potential progress.
- I have good timing and pacing in counseling. For example, I am good at gauging the amount of time to focus on topics or activities, I am in sync with my clients, I know appropriate times to transition to something new or slow down the process, etc.
- I am effective in keeping counseling sessions focused and “on track.”
- I am knowledgeable in the various aspects of child and adolescent development.
- I regularly use basic counseling skills during sessions (e.g., active listening, use of body language, paraphrasing, reflecting meaning or feeling, etc.).
- When collaborating/consulting with others, I consistently follow up to provide clarification, give assistance, problem solve, and monitor progress.[Page 206]
- I am knowledgeable about how neurobiological processes can impact clients’ behaviors.
- I enjoy hobbies and interests outside of work.
- I am friendly and upbeat with clients.
- I involve myself in both personal and professional growth activities.
- I collect data to measure clients’ progress on goals.
- During team problem solving, I listen to other team members carefully and demonstrate that I value their input.
- I set short-term and long-term professional goals for myself.
- I enjoy my current work.
- I seek consultation from professional colleagues and/or supervisors when I need guidance or assistance.
- I am effective in promoting the implementation of well-designed classroom interventions through designing, explaining, demonstrating, organizing, and communicating.
- In my use of evidence-based interventions I gather data and monitor outcomes. I conduct my own formal/informal research as a scientist-practitioner.
- I seek to be well informed regarding schoolwide and classroom expectations for students as well as the expectations for teachers and school staff to assist me in designing ecologically valid as well as “doable” interventions.
- I demonstrate care and warmth with clients in counseling.
Scoring: Add up the scores from the items that comprise each domain for a total score. To get the total score for five of the domains *add up the total score then divide by 2(Applied Counseling Skills; Assessment and Case Conceptualization; Collaboration and Generalization; Emotional Health and Self-Care; Therapeutic Relationship).
- Applied Counseling Skills (Appl): *13, 17, 21, 27, 33, 36 / 2 =
- Assessment and Case Conceptualization (A/CC): *3, 8, 25, 31, 35, 38 / 2 =[Page 207]
- Collaboration and Generalization (C/G): *18, 24, 37, 43, 47, 49 / 2 =
- Developing Goals (DG): 4, 12, 30
- Emotional Health and Self-Care (Emo): *6, 11, 19, 23, 39, 45 / 2 =
- Ethics, Professionalism, and Judgment (Eth): 1, 20, 46
- Evidence-Based Practice (EBP): 7, 13, 48
- Expectation of Progress (EP): 5, 22, 32
- Measuring Outcomes (MO): 12, 26, 42
- Professional Growth (PG): 9, 41, 44
- Theoretical Orientation (ThO): 14, 28, 31
- Therapeutic Relationship (ThR): *10, 16, 17, 29, 40, 50 / 2 =
- Therapeutic Structure and Process (ThStr): 2, 15, 34
Interpretation: Transfer total scores to Score Profile to view your relative areas of strength and weakness across domains. Place an “X” in the corresponding box on the Score Profile. For further analysis, examine individual items within the domains.
[Page 208]3 Greatest Strengths
3 Weakest Areas
- How can I maximize or capitalize on my strength areas in counseling?
- What are some specific steps I can take to make growth in my weakest areas?
Resource H: Personal and Professional Growth Plan Form[Page 209]
Provision of School-Based Counseling or Therapy
Name: _____Date: _____
- Self-Assessment (Use results from Counselor Self-Evaluation Survey in Resource G)
My personal strength areas as a counselor/therapist:
Weakest areas as a counselor/therapist:
- Planning for Goal Setting (Consider the following questions)
- What else might I consider in assessing my strengths and weaknesses as a counselor?
- Am I open to feedback from others?
- What types of blind spots might I be susceptible to?
- Am I too self-critical of myself as a counselor?[Page 210]
- What types of personal and professional growth activities benefit me most?
- Am I developing goals that are meaningful, relevant, challenging, attainable, specific, positive, time limited, and measureable?
Targeted Area 1:_____
Targeted Area 2: _____
Targeted Area 3: _____
References[Page 211][Page 224]2010). Mental health in schools: Engaging learners, preventing problems, and improving schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (1999). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (American Academy of Pediatrics. (2004). ‘School-based mental health services’. Pediatrics, 113, 1839–1845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.113.6.1839American Psychological Association (APA). (2006). Task force report of the working group on psychotropic medication for children and adolescents: Psychopharmacological, psychosocial, and combined interventions for childhood disorders: Evidence base, contextual factors, and future directions. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/child-medications.pdfAmerican School Counselor Association (ASCA). (2003). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.American School Counselor Association (ASCA). (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.American School Counselor Association (ASCA). (2008). The professional school counselor and response to intervention position statement. Retrieved from http://asca2timberlakepublishing.com//files/PS_Intervention.pdf2009). One stop guide to implementing RTI: Academic and behavioral interventions, K–12. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(1999). The empirical case for the common factors in therapy: Qualitative findings. In M. A.Hubble, B. L.Duncan, & S. D.Miller (Eds.), The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy (pp. 33–56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., & (2010). ‘Toward the integration of education and mental health in schools’. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37, 40–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-010-0299-7, , , & (2000). Is Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism necessarily a disability?Development and Psychopathology, 12, 489–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400003126(2006). Writing measurable IEP goals and objectives. Verona, WI: Attainment Company., & (2008). School-wide approaches to behavioral problems. In B.Doll & J.Cummings (Eds.), Transforming school mental health services: Population-based approaches to promoting the competency and wellness of children (pp. 103–141). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2009). ‘Use of a social and character development program to prevent substance use, violent behaviors, and sexual activity among elementary-school students in Hawaii’. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 1438–1445. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.142919, , , , , … ([Page 212]1991). Fostering resiliency in kids: Protective factors in the family, school, and community. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.(2006). ‘Therapist skills: A cognitive model of their acquisition and refinement’. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34, 57–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465805002420(1968). General system theory: Essays on its foundation and development (. (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: George Braziller.1993). Is it time to improve psychotherapy training?Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 301–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2893%2990015-E(1984). The IDEAL problem solver: A guide for improving thinking, learning, and creativity. New York, NY: Freeman., & (2001). ‘Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy’. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 631–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.7.631, , , , , (Bronfenbrenner, U. (Ed.). (2005). On making human beings human: Biological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2010). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice (, & (2nd ed.) New York, NY: Guilford.1999). The feeling good handbook. (, (Revised edition). New York, NY: Penguin.2008). ‘Report of the national panel for evidence-based school counseling: Outcome research coding protocol and evaluation on student success skills and second step’. Professional School Counseling, 11, 197–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.5330/PSC.n.2010-11.197, , , , & (2006). ‘A survey of school psychologists’ knowledge and training in child psychopharmacology'. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 623–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20168, , & (2009). The effectiveness of family therapy and systemic interventions for child-focused problems. Journal of Family Therapy, 31, 3–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6427.2008.00451.x(1988). Developing effective behavioral interventions. In J. L.Graden, J. E.Zins, & M. J.Curtis (Eds.), Alternative educational delivery systems: Enhancing instructional options for all students (pp. 413–430). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists., , & (Center for Child and Family Policy. (n.d.). Evaluation of school-based child and family support teams initiative (100 Schools Project). Retrieved from http://childandfamilypolicy.duke.edu/project_detail.php?id=36Child and Family Center. (n.d.). Ecological approach to family intervention and treatment (EcoFIT) integrated with PBS: An effectiveness trial in middle schools. Retrieved from http://cfc.uoregon.edu/projects-ecofit.htmChild with a disability, 34 C.F.R. § 300.8(2007).2008). Best practices in problem analysis. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology ((5th ed., pp. 159–176). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.2008). Partnering with families to enhance students' mental health. In B.Doll & J. A.Cummings (Eds.), Transforming school mental health services (pp. 69–101). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin & National Association of School Psychologists., , & ([Page 213]1991). ‘Attachment organization in maltreated preschoolers’. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 397–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400007598, & (2010). Functional behavioral assessment, diagnosis, and treatment: A complete system for education and mental health settings. New York, NY: Springer., & (Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools. (n.d.). CBITS at-a-Glance. Retrieved from http://cbitsprogram.org/Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities. (2006). Principles for the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind. Retrieved from http://www.c-c-d.org/task_forces/education/NCLB_Principles.pdf2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy ((8th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York, NY: Guilford., & (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program. New York, NY: Guilford., , & (Definition of Individualized Education Program, 34 C.F.R. §300.320(a)(4)(2007).2006). Leading psychoeducational groups for children and adolescents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204291(2005). Problem-solving assessment. In R.Brown-Chidsey (Ed.), Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach (pp. 10–40). New York, NY: Guilford.(2008). Transforming school mental health services: Population-based approaches to promoting the competency and wellness of children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2005). ‘Child psychopharmacology: How school psychologists can contribute to effective outcomes’. School Psychology Quarterly, 20, 206–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/scpq.184.108.40.206511, & (2011). ‘The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions'. Child Development, 82, 405–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x, , , , & (2009). The skilled helper: A problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping ((9th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.2004). Reconnecting youth: Peer group approach to building life skills (, , & (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.1993). ‘Changing adolescent propensities to use drugs: Results from Project ALERT’. Health Education Quarterly, 20, 227–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819302000214, , & (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. Washington, DC: What Works Clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://www.ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc, , , , & (2010). Thirty-five techniques every counselor should know. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson., , , & ([Page 214]Beyond empathy: A therapy of contact-in-relationship. Integrative Psychotherapy Articles. Retrieved from http://www.integrativetherapy.com/en/articles.php?id=39(n.d.).1998). ‘Attunement and involvement: Therapeutic responses to relational needs’. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 3, 235–244.(1999). Beyond empathy: A theory of contact-in-relationship. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel., , & (2003). ‘Pathways into and through mental health services for children and adolescents’. Psychiatric Services, 54, 60–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.54.1.60, , , , & (2010). Implementation of evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: Research findings and their implications for the future. In J. R.Wiez & A. E.Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. New York, NY: Guilford., , , , & (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature (p. 5). National Implementation Research Network, University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute. Available online at http://nirn.fmhi.usf.edu/resources/publications/Monograph/, , , , & (2009). ‘Response to intervention: Preventing and remediating academic difficulties’. Child Development Perspectives, 3, 30–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2008.00072.x, & (2003). Childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. In E. J.Mash & R. A.Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology ((2nd ed., pp. 330–371). New York, NY: Guilford.2005). School mental health services in the United States, 2002–2003. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 054068. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration., , , , , & (2001). ‘The effectiveness of solution-focused therapy with children in a school setting’. Research on Social Work Practice, 11, 411–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973150101100401, , , , & (2008). ‘Effectiveness of solution focused brief therapy in a school setting’. Children and Schools, 30, 15–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cs/30.1.15, , & (2005). ‘How elementary school counselors can meet the needs of students with disabilities’. Professional School Counseling, 8, 442–450.(1989). ‘Exploring effective and efficient prereferral interventions: A component analysis of behavioral consultation’. School Psychology Review, 18, 260–279., & (2005). Operationalizing response-to-intervention (RTI) as a method of LD identification. Retrieved from http://www.tn.gov/education/speced/doc/sefuopertifaq.pdf, & (1993). A school-based medication evaluation program. In J. L.Matson (Ed.), Handbook of hyperactivity in children (pp. 186–219). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.(1995). Raising children in a socially toxic environment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1998). The psychotherapy relationship. New York, NY: Wiley., & (2004). ‘Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavioral therapy’. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 34–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.1.34, , , , & ([Page 215]2009). ‘President Obama and mental health policy–the audacity to hope’. Journal of Mental Health, 18, 193–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638230902976392(1994). Counseling the adolescent substance abuser: School-based intervention and prevention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2003). ‘Characteristics of effective school-based substance abuse prevention’. Prevention Science, 4, 27–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021782710278, & (2002). The schools. In J. Q.Wilson & J.Petersilia (Eds.), Crime: Public policies for crime control (pp. 149–190). San Francisco, CA: ICS Press., , & (2001). ‘Solution-focused therapy: A counseling model for busy family physicians’. Canadian Family Physician, 47, 2289–2295., , & (2001). ‘Interpreting outcomes of social skills training for students with high-incidence disabilities’. Exceptional Children, 67, 331–344., , & (2001). The professional counselor: A process guide to helping (, & (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.2007). ‘Effectiveness of universal school-based programs for the prevention of violence’. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 114–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.04.012, , (2002). ‘Pediatricians’ preferences for ADHD information from schools'. School Psychology Review, 31, 94–105., , & (1992). Gatekeeper to advocate. New York, NY: College Board Press., & (2009). Secondary-tier interventions and supports. In W.Sailor, G.Sugai, R. H.Horner, & G.Dunlap (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 395–420). New York, NY: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09632-2_17, , , & (1998). Multisystemic treatment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. New York, NY: Guilford., , , , & (2009) Hidden pain? Self-injury and people with learning disabilities. Bristol, UK: Bristol Crisis Service for Women., & (1997). ‘Effectiveness of school-based mental health services for children: A 10-year research review’. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 435–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025045412689, & (2010). ‘Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury. Recommendations for minimizing client and counselor risk and enhancing client care’. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(4), 342–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.17744/mehc.32.4.b22m114437051l1w, & (2012). What does it cost to implement school-wide PBIS? Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/common/pbisresources/publications/20120802_WhatDoesItCostToImplementSWPBIS.pdf, , , , , , … (Hubble, M., Duncan, B., & Miller, S. (Eds.) (1999). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11132-0002010). Tier 3 of the RTI Model: Problem solving through a case study approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (1998). ‘School-based methylphenidate placebo protocols: Methodological and practical issues’. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 581–594. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949803100609, , , , , , & ([Page 216]2001). ‘The distal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on conduct problems and disorder in early adolescence’. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9, 146–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106342660100900301, , , & (Innovative Programs. (n.d.). Integrated mental health services in the schools. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from http://www.thekimfoundation.org/html/edu_training/integrated-services.htmlInstitute of Educational Sciences. (n.d.). Ecological approach to family intervention and treatment (Eco-FIT) integrated with PBS: An effectiveness trial in middle school. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/funding/grantsearch/details.asp?ID=774IRIS Center. (2007). What is the IQ-achievement discrepancy model?National Association of State Directors of Special Education, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Retrieved from http://www.ideapartnership.org/documents/IRIS_DG_IQ-Discrep_RTI.pdf2004). Chartbook on mental health and disability in the United States. An InfoUse Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research., , & (1999). ‘The cognitive, emotional, and relational characteristics of master therapists’. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 3–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.11, & (2004). ‘Active ingredients in individual psychotherapy: Searching for common factors’. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21, 516–540.(2006). ‘A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD’. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 1004–1031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.03.004, , , , , & (2005). ‘A theoretical model of common process factors in youth and family therapy’. Mental Health Services Research, 7, 35–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11020-005-1964-4, , , & (2006). ‘Meta-analysis of therapeutic relationship variables in youth and family therapy: The evidence for different relationship variables in the child and adolescent treatment outcome literature’. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 50–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.09.001, , , & (1999). Efficacy of special education and related services. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation., & (1982). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.(1997). ‘Practitioner review: Psychosocial treatments for conduct disorder in children’. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 161–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01851.x(2000). ‘Increasing identification of psychosocial problems: 1979–1996’. Pediatrics, 105, 1313–1321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.105.6.1313, , , , , , … (2008). Solution-focused brief therapy in schools: A 360-degree view of research and practice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366297.001.0001, , & (2007). ‘Differences in brain glucose metabolism between responders to CBT and venlafaxine in a 16-week randomized controlled trial’. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 778–788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2007.164.5.778, , , , (2003). ‘Child and adolescent psychiatry workforce: A critical shortage and national challenge’. Academic Psychiatry, 27, 277–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ap.27.4.277([Page 217]1990). Behavioral consultation in applied settings: An individual guide. New York, NY: Plenum., & (2008). ‘Non-suicidal self-injury and motivational interviewing: Enhancing readiness for change’. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30, 311–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.17744/mehc.30.4.n2136170r5732u6h, & (1999). ‘Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1121–1134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1681, & (1994). ‘Pediatric psychopharmacology and prescription privileges: Implications and opportunities for school psychology’. School Psychology Quarterly, 9, 26–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088840(2011). Pediatric psychopharmacology. In M.Bray & T.Kehle (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of school psychology (pp. 696–727). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.(2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, The Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child and Family Studies, Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health., , & (1996). ‘Solution focused counseling groups: The results are in’. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 21, 128–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929608412241, & (2003). Psychotherapy outcome research: Implications for integrative and eclectic therapists. In C.Norcross & M.Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (pp. 94–129). New York, NY: Basic Books.(2002). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. In J. C.Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 17–32). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press., & (2009). Developing school-wide programs to prevent and manage problem behavior: A step-by-step approach. New York, NY: Guilford., , & (2011). Do treatment manuals undermine youth-therapist alliance in community clinical practice?Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 427–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0023821, , & (2004). Helping schoolchildren cope with anger: A cognitive-behavioral intervention. New York, NY: Guilford., & (1976). Multimodal behavior therapy. New York, NY: Springer.(2008). ‘Changes in midbrain serotonin transporter availability in atypically depressed subjects after one year of psychotherapy’. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 32, 229–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.08.013, , (1993). Transdisciplinary vocational assessment: Issues in school-based programs. Brandon, VT: Clinical Psychology Publishing.(2004). Introduction to transition assessment. In E. M.Levinson (Ed.), Transition from school to post-school life for individuals with disabilities: Assessment from an educational and school psychological perspective (pp. 3–35). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.(2008). Best practices in school-based career assessment and school-to-work transition for students with disabilities. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (([Page 218]5th ed., pp. 1563–1580). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.1999). ‘Some neurobiological aspects of psychotherapy’. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 8, 103–114., & (1995). ‘Single-session brief counseling in a high school’. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 451–458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1995.tb01779.x, , & (1996). A social-cognitive intervention with aggressive children: Prevention effects and contextual implementation issues. In R.DeV Peters & R. J.McMahon (Eds.), Prevention and early intervention: Childhood disorders, substance use, and delinquency (pp. 111–143). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1996). Complete group counseling program for children of divorce: Ready-to-use plans & materials for small & large groups, grades 1–6. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2010). The school counselor's guide to helping students with disabilities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass., , , & (2012). Comprehensive behavior management: Individualized, classroom, and schoolwide approaches (, , , & (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814522439312009). Cognitive-behavioral interventions for emotional and behavioral disorders: School-based practice. New York, NY: Guilford., , , & (2011). The Behavior Intervention Monitoring Assessment System (BIMAS). Toronto, Canada: MHS., , & (2011). ‘Practice guidelines regarding psychologists’ involvement in pharmacological issues'. American Psychologist, 66, 835–849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025890, , , , , , & (2008). Best practices in developing a positive behavior support system at the school level. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (, & (5th ed., pp. 735–747). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.2008). RTI: A practitioner's guide to implementing response to intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781483329772, & (2012). Cognitive-behavioral interventions in educational settings: A handbook for practice (, , & (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.2010). ‘Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)’. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 980–989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017, , , , , , … (Michigan Department of Education. (2011). Dropout rates: Michigan's state performance plan, indicator 2. Annual Performance Report 2005–06. Michigan Department of Education Office of Special Education and Early Intervention Services. Retrieved from http://www.cenmi.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Gt-JNLIuoA0%3D&tabid=105&mid=5442002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (, & ([Page 219]2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.2008). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures ((4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.2007). Planning psychoeducational groups for schools. Retrieved from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas07/Mobley.pdf, & (2008). Solution-focused counseling in schools. Based on a program presented at the ACA Annual Conference & Exhibition, Honolulu, HI. Retrieved from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas08/Murphy.htm(National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2011). Facts on children's mental health in America. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=federal_and_state_policy_legislation&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=43804National Association of School Psychologists. (2009). Appropriate behavioral, social, and emotional supports to meet the needs of all students [Position statement]. Bethesda, MD: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/about_nasp/positionpapers/appropriatebehavioralsupports.pdfNational Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE). (2007). Response to intervention: Research for practice. Retrieved from http://www.nasdse.org/Portals/0/Documents/RtI_Bibliography2.pdfNational Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI). (2010, March). Essential components of RTI–A closer look at response to intervention. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Washington, DC. Public Law 107–110, 115 Stat. 1425, enacted January 8, 2002.National Education Association. (2012). Positive behavioral interventions and supports: A multi-tiered framework that works for every student [Policy brief]. Washington, DC: NEA Education Policy and Practice Department. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/PB41positivebehavioralinterventions2012.pdf2009). ‘Deleterious effects of psychotherapy and counseling in the schools’. Psychology in the Schools, 46, 232–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20367, , & (2011). Integrative psychotherapies. In R. J.Corsini & D.Wedding (Eds.), Current psychotherapies (, & (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage.North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Child and Family Support Teams: A joint project of NC DHHS and the NC Department of Public Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.ncdhhs.gov/childandfamilyteams/1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole., , , , , & (1986). ‘Balancing program and research integrity in community drug abuse prevention: Project STAR approach’. Journal of School Health, 56, 389–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1986.tb05779.x, , , , & (2007). Competency in generalist practice: A guide to theory and evidence-based decision making. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.(1985). ‘A counselor's guide to psychopharmacology’. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 109–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1985.tb01046.x(Positive Family Support. (n.d.). Positive family support for middle schools. Psychiatric Research, 41, 837–847. Retrieved June 12, 2012, from https://research.ori.org/pfs/docs/PFS_FAQs_2009.pdf[Page 220]2001). ‘Psychiatric consultation to school-based health centers: Lessons learned in an emerging field’. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1473–1475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200112000-00019(2010). ‘Social skills interventions for individuals with autism: Evaluation for evidence-based practices within a best evidence synthesis framework’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 149–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0842-0, & (2008). School psychology paradigm shift and beyond. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology ((5th ed., pp. 3–16). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.2009). Evaluating educational interventions: Single-case design for measuring response to intervention. New York, NY: Guilford., & (2009). ‘Training school psychologists in psychopharmacology consultation’. Psychology in the Schools, 46, 827–835. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20423, , & (1961). On becoming a person. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.(1995). What is motivational interviewing?Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 325–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S135246580001643X, & (2009). Beyond evidence-based psychotherapy: Fostering the eight sources of change in child and adolescent treatment. New York, NY: Routledge.(SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. (2007). Motivational interviewing. Retrieved from http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ViewIntervention.aspx?id=1302007, January). Berkeley integrated resources initiative–Schools mental health partnership: Strategic plan. Retrieved from http://berkeleyschools.net/uploads/biri/BIRI_Schools_Mental_Health%20.pdf, & (1994). Applied behavioral analysis in the classroom. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon., & (2007). ‘Effects of dialectic-behavioral-therapy on the neural correlates of affective hyperarousal in borderline personality disorder’. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41(10), 837–847. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.08.011, & (2012). ‘Training considerations for pediatric psychopharmacology in RxP’. The Tablet: Newsletter of Division 55 of the American Psychological Association, 13, 6–18., & (2013). A national survey of school psychologists' roles and training in psychopharmacology. Poster presented at the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Conference, Seattle, WA., & (2003). Prediction of treatment outcome from relationship variables in child and adolescent therapy: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 462–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.452, & (1988). ‘Evidence that IQ scores are irrelevant to the definition and analysis of reading disability’. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 42, 201–215. doi: 10.1037/h0084184 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0084184(2006). ‘Use of fMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy’. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 735–738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.735, , & (2012). ‘Illinois statewide positive behavioral interventions and supports evolution and impact on student outcomes across years’. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 5–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098300711412601, , , , , , & ([Page 221]1997). ‘The racial/ethnic demography of disability’. Journal of Rehabilitation, 63, 9–15., & (2001). Emergency and transitional shelter population: 2000 (Census 2000 special reports). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. Available: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/censr01-2.pdf, & (2003). ‘Starting at the beginning for learning disabilities identification: Response to instruction in general education’. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 16, 37–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-004X%2803%2916002-8, , & (2004). ‘Common factors and our sacred models’. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30, 113–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2004.tb01228.x, & (2008). Best practices in functional behavioral assessment. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (, & (5th ed., pp. 337–348). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.2009). Conducting school-based functional behavioral assessments: A practitioner's guide (, & (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.2008). Implementing positive behavior support systems in early childhood and elementary settings (p. 123). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., , , & (2011). ‘An ecological approach to promoting early adolescent mental health and social adaptation: Family-centered intervention in public middle schools’. Child Development, 82, 209–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01551.x, , , , , (2008). Best practices in developing a broad-scale system of school wide positive behavior support. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (, , & (5th ed., pp. 17–36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.2001). School-wide evaluation tool version 2.1. Educational & Community Supports, University of Oregon., , , & (2002). ‘Project Towards No Drug Abuse: A review of the findings and future directions’. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26, 354–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.26.5.4, , & (2000). ‘Wounds that time won't heal: The neurobiology of child abuse’. Cerebrum: The Dana Forum on Brain Science, 2, 50–67.(2011). Interpersonal process in psychotherapy: An integrative model (, & (6th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.2006). ‘The continuing shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists’. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1023–1031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000225353.16831.5d, & (1998). ‘Brief counseling for students with learning disabilities’. Professional School Counseling, 2, 60–67., & (2008). The evolution of school psychology to science-based practice: Problem solving and the three-tiered model. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology ((5th ed., pp. 17–36). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.1997). ‘Effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research’. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 18, 71–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024630205999, & (2008). Solution focused therapy treatment manual for working with individuals (pp. 1–16). Retrieved from http://www.sfbta.org/Research.pdf, , , , , & ([Page 222]2009). The school counselor's guide to special education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., , & (2011). The IEP from A to Z: How to create meaningful and measurable goals and objectives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass., & (U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–466. Federal Register, 70, 35802–35803.U.S. Government Accounting Office. (2003, July). Special education: Federal actions can assist states in improving postsecondary outcomes for youth. (Publication No. GAO-03–773). Retrieved from GAO Reports Main Page via GPO Access database: http://www.gao.gov/assets/240/238677.pdf2008). Best practices in can't do/won't do assessment. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (, & (5th ed., pp. 131–140). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.2005). ‘An agile behavioral model for monitoring the effects of stimulant medication in school settings’. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 509–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20088, , & (2007, June). A guide for probation and parole: Motivating offenders to change. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections. Retrieved from http://static.nicic.gov/Library/022253.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e584392011-001, , , & (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1992). Overcoming the odds: High-risk children from birth to adulthood. New York, NY: Cornell University Press., & (2010). Behavior management: Principles and practices of positive behavior supports (, & (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson.2009). ‘Review of school counseling outcome research’. Psychology in the Schools, 46, 267–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pits.20372, & (2007). ‘Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the intervention literature’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1858–1868. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0320-x, , & (2003). ‘The effects of school-based intervention programs on aggressive and disruptive behavior: A meta-analysis’. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 136–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.136, , & (2005, May). The effectiveness of school-based violence prevention programs for reducing disruptive and aggressive behavior. Revised Report for the National Institute of Justice School Violence Prevention Research Planning Meeting (1–26). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211376.pdf, & (2010, November 15). Latest research on social skills interventions. Retrieved July 18, 2012, from http://www.socialthinking.com/what-is-socialthinking/michelles-blog/408-latest-research-on-socials-skills-interventions(2008). Substance abuse. In H. L. K.Coleman & C.Yeh (Eds.), Handbook of school counseling (pp. 717–736). New York, NY: Routledge., & ([Page 223]2006). School psychology: A blueprint for training and practice III. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (, , , , , , … (5th ed., pp. 37–70). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.2008). ‘Reframing the DSM-IV-TRfrom a multicultural/social justice perspective’. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 364–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2008.tb00521.x, , , , & (1996). ‘The relationship of ego development and the counseling effectiveness of counselor trainees’. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56, 12B. (UMI No. 95011–161).(1993). Behavior management: Applications for teachers and parents. New York, NY: Macmillan., & (1977). ‘Vulnerability: A new view of schizophrenia’. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 103–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.86.2.103, & (2008). Utilizing cognitive behavioral interventions to positively impact academic achievement in middle school students. The Journal of School Counseling, 6. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v6n15.pdf, & (
CORWIN: A SAGE Company[Page 231]
The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK–12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”