CBT for Older People: An Introduction
Publication Year: 2015
Going beyond simple procedural modifications, this is the first book to address how the application of gerontology to CBT practice can augment CBT's effectiveness and appropriateness with older people. Taking you step-by-step through the CBT process and supported by clinical case examples, therapeutic dialogue, points for reflection and hints and tips, the book examines: - basic theoretical models in CBT and how to relate them to work with older people; - main behavioural interventions and their practical application; - social context and relevant theories of aging; - implications of assessment, diagnosis and treatment; - issues of anxiety, worry and depression, and more specialist applications of CBT for chronic illnesses; - latest developments, thinking and empirical evidence.
This is an invaluable companion for any clinical psychology, counselling, ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Preparing to Use CBT with Older People
- Chapter 1: Introduction to CBT
- Chapter 2: Practical Information for Psychotherapists Working with Older People
- Chapter 3: CBT for Late Life Depression
- Chapter 4: CBT for Late Life Anxiety
Part 2: The Application of CBT with Older People
- Chapter 5: Structure and Content of CBT with Older People
- Chapter 6: The Therapeutic Relationship in CBT with Older People
- Chapter 7: Cognitive and Behavioural Interventions
- Chapter 8: Age-Appropriate CBT: Case Conceptualisation with Older People
Part 3: Specialist Applications of CBT with Older People
SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish more than 750 journals, including those of more than 300 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, conference highlights, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara's lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.
Los Angeles | London | Washington DC | New Delhi | Singapore
© Ken Laidlaw 2015
First published 2015
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014941226
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-84920-460-6 (pbk)
Editor: Kate Wharton
Assistant editor: Laura Walmsley
Production editor: Rachel Burrows
Copyeditor: Dan Harding
Proofreader: Bryan Campbell
Indexer: Bill Farrington
Marketing manager: Camille Richmond
Cover design: Wendy Scott
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by Henry Ling Limited at
The Dorset Press, Dorchester, DT1 1HD
At SAGE we take sustainability seriously. Most of our products are printed in the UK using FSC papers and boards.
When we print overseas we ensure sustainable papers are used as measured by the Egmont grading system.
We undertake an annual audit to monitor our sustainability.
About the Author
I want to acknowledge the great generosity of all my clients in allowing me to learn with them when facing their current life challenges and I am very grateful to those who agreed to have some of their stories shared for training purposes. The clients I worked with always showed great resilience and tenacity in facing problems with a strength of character forged from adversity that always impresses and inspires me, even if they sometimes found it very hard to give themselves much credit for what they did. I hope to have gained some important insights as a result that I can pass on in this text.
I am also indebted to the editorial team at Sage, Kate and Laura in particular showed me the greatest patience in waiting for this book to be finished. They never seemed to give up on this book, and were always positive and supportive. I am so very grateful they kept their faith in me. I could not have hoped for a better team to work with.
Finally, I am fortunate to have an amazing support system at home. My wife Mary and our daughter Katherine were very forgiving of the time I took away from family tasks in order to write. I dedicate this book to them in love and gratitude.[Page viii]
References[Page 190]2001). Neuropsychiatric differences between Parkinson's disease with dementia and Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 184–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1166%28200102%2916:2%3C184::AID-GPS304%3E3.0.CO;2-K, , & (2013). Robert N. Butler (January 21, 1927-July 4, 2010): visionary leader. The Gerontologist, 53, 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gns150(2005). Depression in the elderly. Lancet, 365, 1961–1970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2805%2966665-2(1988). Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23(3), 271–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223%2888%2990038-8, , , & (ADI, Alzheimer's Disease International (2012). World Alzheimer report 2012: overcoming the stigma of dementia. London: ADI. Available at: http://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2012.pdfAlzheimer's Association (2011). Alzheimer's Association report 2011: Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 7, 208–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2011.02.004Alzheimer's Society (2011). Optimising treatment and care for people with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: a best practice guide for health and social care professionals. London: Alzheimer's Society.APA, American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.APA, American Psychiatric Association (2013). Highlight of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. Available at: http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/changes%20from%20dsm-iv-tr%20to%20dsm-5.pdf2013). Is cognitive behavioural therapy as efficacious in treating generalised anxiety disorder in older people compared to adults of working age? Unpublished MSc by research dissertation, University of Edinburgh.(2007). Evidence-based psychological treatments for late life anxiety. Psychology & Aging, 22, 8–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7922.214.171.124, , , & (2004). The two faces of wisdom: wisdom as a general theory of knowledge and judgement about excellence in mind and virtue vs. wisdom as everyday realization in people and products. Human Development, 47, 290–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000079156& (2003). New frontiers in the future of aging: from successful aging of the young-old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology, 49, 123–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000067946& (2008). The fascination of wisdom: its nature, ontogeny, and function, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 56–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00062.x& ([Page 191]2000). Wisdom: a metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.122& (2011). The efficacy of psychologically based interventions to improve anxiety, depression and quality of life in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Patient Education and Counseling, 83, 29–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.04.010& (2005). The CORE-OM in an older adult population: psychometric status, acceptability, and feasibility. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 235–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860500090052, , , & (2001) A randomized trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and supportive counselling for anxiety symptoms in older adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 756–762. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.69.5.756, , , , , & (2004). Personal growth in adults' stories of life transitions. Journal of Personality, 72, 573–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00273.x& (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press., , , & (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: Meridien.(1983). Cognitive therapy of depression: New perspectives. In P. J.Clayton & J. E.Barrett (Eds.) Treatment of depression: Old controversies and new approaches. New York: Raven Press.(2008). The evolution of the cognitive model of depression and its neurobiological correlates. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 969–977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08050721(1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893–897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.6.893, , , & (1996). The Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation., , & (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy: basics and beyond ((2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.2001). Cognitive content-specificity for anxiety and depression: a meta analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 651–663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012911104891& (1999). Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 307–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.174.4.307, , & (1999). Questions as interventions: Perceptions of Socratic, solution focused and diagnostic questioning styles. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 17, 115–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023005015329& (2002). The validity of the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale: an updated literature review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 52, 69–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999%2801%2900296-3, , , & (2001). The revised cognitive therapy scale (CTS-R): psychometric properties. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29, 431–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465801004040, , , , , , & (2010). Protection from late life depression. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 171–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610209990895([Page 192]2005). Origins of depression in later life. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291704004052& (1999). Who is suitable for cognitive behavioural therapy?Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 92, 222–229.(2004). Making things better and learning a lesson: experiencing wisdom across the lifespan. Journal of Personality, 72, 543–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00272.x& (2008). The clinical utility of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in older adults with cognitive impairment. Nursing Older People, 20, 36–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nop2008.10.20.8.36.c6809, , & (2009). On the origins of ageism among older and younger adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 1003–1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S104161020999055X(2011). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 391–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131609& (1994). Psychotherapy for individuals with Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 8, (Suppl. 3), 75–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002093-199404000-00008(2009). The neuropsychology of dementia. In I.Grant & K. M.Adams (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders (pp. 159–198). New York: Oxford University Press., , & (2003). Meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 51, 657–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0579.2003.00210.x(2012). Meta-analysis of nonpharmacological symptoms of dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 946–953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11101529& (2009). Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues in Clinical NeuroSciences, 11, 217–228.& (2011). Post-stroke depression: The case for augmented Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice, 18 (3), 202–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.711, , , , , , & (2012). The relationship between attitudes to aging and physical and mental health in older adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 24, 1674–1683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610212000774, , , , , & (2008). The prevalence of anxiety in older adults: methodological issues and a review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109, 233–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.11.008, , & (2006). ‘Justifiable depression’: How primary care professionals and patients view late life depression? A qualitative study. Family Practice, 23, 369–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmi115, , , , , & (2010). Development and validation of a short form of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: The GAI-SF. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 5.& (2008). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in 921 elderly subjects with dementia: a comparison between vascular and neurodegenerative types. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117, 455–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01175.x, , , , , , , & (2003). Aging, emotion, and evolution: The bigger picture. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 152–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1280.008& ([Page 193]2011). Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling. Psychology and Aging, 26, 21–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021285, , , , , , , & (2003). Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 103–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024569803230, , & (1999). Taking time seriously: a theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.3.165, , & (2008). Impact of major depression and subsyndromal symptoms on quality of life and attitudes toward aging in an international sample of older adults. Gerontologist, 48, 593–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/48.5.593, , , & (2011). The role of cognitive-behavioural therapy for patients with depression in Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease, article ID 737523, doi:10.4061/2011/737523., , , & (2004). Overcoming barriers to collaborative conceptualization in cognitive therapy with older adults. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 32, 411–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465804001699& (2011). Caregiver support groups in patients with dementia: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(10), 1089–1098. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2660, , , , , , & (2010). Preliminary evidence for the development of a stroke specific geriatric depression scale. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 188–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2513, , , , & (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press., , & (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155(2002). Positive aspects of caregiving: rounding out the caregiver experience. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 184–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.561, , & (2001). Psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia: A systematic review. Aging & Mental Health, 5, 120–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2001.11070746, , , , & (2002) Encouraging homework completion among older adults in therapy. JCLP/In session: Psychotherapy in Practice, 58, 549–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10032& (2007). A systematic review of the prevalence and associates of anxiety in caregivers of people with dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 175–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610206004297, , & (2006). Assessing worry in older and younger adults: psychometric properties of an abbreviated Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PDWQ-A). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 1036–1054. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.11.006& (2009). Is psychotherapy for depression equally effective in younger and in older adults? A meta-regression analysis. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 16–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610208008089, , , & (1994). Screening, detection and management of depression in primary care attenders I: the acceptability and performance of the 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) and the development of shorter versions. Family Practice, 11, 260–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fampra/11.3.260, , , , & ([Page 194]2009). Is the geriatric depression scale a reliable screening tool for depressive symptoms in elderly patients with cognitive impairment?International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 556–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2154, (DEMOS (2012). Ageing across Europe: a report prepared by DEMOS for WRVS May 2012. Cardiff: WRVS.2007). Self-report measures of anxiety: are they suitable for older adults?Aging & Mental Health, 11, 668–677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860701529916, , & (2012). Depression in older people in the general hospital: a systematic review of screening instruments. Age & Ageing, 41, 148–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afr169, , & (2006). Clinical interventions for late-life anxious depression. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 1, 41–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ciia.2006.1.1.41& (2010). Awareness of age-related change: examination of a (mostly) unexplored concept. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65, 340–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp110& (2011). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 1066–1074. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10111669, , , , , , , & (2009). The importance of choice in therapy: from the perspective of a, hopefully flexible, CBT practitioner. European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 11, 311–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13642530903230418(Dryden, W. & Branch, R. (Eds.). (2012). The CBT handbook. London: SAGE.2008). Older adult psychological assessment: current instrument status and related circumstances. Clinical Gerontologist, 31, 1–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317110802072108, , , , , , & (2005). Routine PHQ-9 depression screening in home health care: depression prevalence, clinical and treatment characteristics and screening implementation. Home Health Care Services Quarterly, 24, 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J027v24n04_01, , , , & (2012). Psychological interventions for carers of people with dementia: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. London: BACP UK., , , , & (2011). Depression in dementia: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24, 461–472., , & (2005) Reliability and validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale in depression in Parkinson's disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 76, 1445–1447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.057984, , & (2008). Interpreting estimates of treatment effects: implications for managed care. Pharmacy & Therapeutics, 33, 700–711.(2007). Assessment of suspected dementia in older people. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 17, 63–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959259808002372, , & (2003). Measuring and monitoring success in compressing morbidity. Annals Internal Medicine, 139, 455–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-139-5_Part_2-200309021-00015(2008). Successful aging as management of resources: the role of selection, optimization, and compensation. Research in Human Development, 5, 94–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15427600802034827([Page 195]1998). Selection, optimization, and compensation as strategies of life-management: correlations with subjective indicators of successful aging. Psychology & Aging, 13, 531–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-79126.96.36.1991& (2012). The mystery of the U-shaped relationship between happiness and age. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 82, 525–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2012.03.008& (1986). Depression, stress and adaptations in the elderly: Psychological assessment and intervention. Rockville, MD: Aspen.(2007). Evidence-based psychological treatments for distress in family caregivers of older adults. Psychology and Aging, 22(1), 37–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-79188.8.131.52& (2007). Cognitive processes in cognitive therapy: evaluation of the mechanisms of change in the treatment of depression. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 224–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00081.x, , , & (Germer, C. K. & Siegel, R. D. (Eds.). (2012). Wisdom and compassion in psychotherapy: deepening mindfulness in clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press Inc.2008). Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 110, 248–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.01.023, , , , , , , & (2012). Interventions for generalized anxiety disorders in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.08.010& (2007). Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety in the elderly. Current Psychiatry Reports, 9, 20–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-007-0005-y& (2010) Cognition and depression: Current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 285–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131305& (2012a). Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in older people: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 60, 1817–1830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04166.x, , & (2012b). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in older people: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 60, 218–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03824.x, , & (2004). Attentional bias for negative interpersonal stimuli in clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 127–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.113.1.121, , , & (2010). Cognition and depression: current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 285–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131305, & (2010). A Systematic Evidence Review of Interventions for Non-professional Caregivers of Individuals with Dementia. VA-ESP Project #05-225., , & (1995). Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy for the frail elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 7, 561–571http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610295002298& (2006). Depression treatment preferences in older primary care patients. The Gerontologist, 46, 14–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/46.1.14, , , , , , , , & (2011). Intention to treat concept: A review. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 2, 109–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.83221(2005). Frequency of depression after stroke: A systematic review of observational studies. Stroke, 36, 1330–1340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000165928.19135.35, , , & ([Page 196]2004). The criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a sample of self-referred elders with depressive symptomatology. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 558–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1130, , , & (2008). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for late-life anxiety disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117, 403–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01190.x, , (1987). Self-discrepancy: a theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.3.319(2010) Sexual orientation issues in the context of interpersonal therapy for late life depression. In N. A.Pachana, K.Laidlaw & B. G.Knight (Eds.) Casebook of clinical geropsychology: International perspectives on practice. Oxford: OUP. pp. 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199583553.003.0001(2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 621–632. http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v69n0415& (2010). A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 891–932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20741& , (House of Lords (2013). Ready for Ageing? Report. Select Committee on Public Service and Demographic Change. Report of Session 2012-13. London: The Stationery Office.2007). Psychological therapies for generalized anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD001848. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001848.pub4., , , & (2010). Psychological therapies for generalized anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD001848. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001848.pub4., , , & (2004). CBT with older people: alterations and the value of the therapeutic alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41, 276–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3184.108.40.2066, , & (2010). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in COPD. Respiratory Medicine, 104, 986–994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2010.02.020, , , , & (IAPT (2008). Long-term conditions positive practice guide. London: DOH.2010). Optimising the diagnostic performance of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychiatry Research, 178, 142–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2009.02.018, , , , & (2007). When are clients ready to terminate?Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24(2), 218–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.09.005, , , & (2013). We will be different! Ageism and the temporal construction of old age. The Getontologist, 53, 198–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gns066(2009). Sadder and less accurate? False memory for negative material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 412–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015621, , & (2000). Does old age reduce the risk of anxiety and depression? A review of epidemiological studies across the life span. Psychological Medicine, 30, 11–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799001452([Page 197]2012). Aging and mental health in the decade ahead: what psychologists need to know. American Psychologist, 67, 184–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025393, , & (2005). Using homework assignments in cognitive behavior therapy. New York: Routledge., , , & (2007). Clinical implications of a psychological model of mental disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465806003274& (2007). When standard cognitive-behavioural therapy is not enough. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31, 121–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.bp.106.013557, , , & (2009). US Census Bureau, series P95/09-1, an ageing world: 2008. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Available at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/p95-09-1.pdf& (2011). A home-delivered intervention for depressed, cognitively impaired disabled elders. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 256–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2521, , , & (Kirschenbaum, H. & Henderson, V. L. (Eds.). (1990). The Carl Rogers reader: selections from the lifetime work of America's preeminent psychologist, author of On Becoming a Person and A Way of Being. London: Constable.1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. London: Open University Press (OUP).(2004). Psychotherapy with older adults ((3rd Edn). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814522045742006). Unique aspects of psychotherapy with older adults. In S.Quall & B. G.Knight (Eds.), Psychotherapy with older adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons.(2009). Pike's Peak model for training in professional geropsychology. American Psychologist, 64, 205–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015059, , , , & (2009). Translational theory: a wisdom-based model for psychological interventions to enhance well-being in later life. In V.Bengston, M.Silverstein, N. M.Putney, & D.Gans (Eds.), Handbook of theories of aging (& (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.1998). Treatment of anxiety in the cognitively impaired elderly: Can cognitive-behavior therapy help?International Psychogeriatrics, 10, 173–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610298005286(2008). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety in patients with dementia: Two case studies. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14, 186–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pra.0000320120.68928.e5, , , , , , , & (2011). Is group psychotherapy effective in older adults with depression?International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 331–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2546, , , , , & (2002). Comorbidity of depression with other medical diseases in the elderly. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 559–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2802%2901472-5, , , , , (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric Annals, 32, 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/0048-5713-20020901-06& (2001). One session cognitive behavioural therapy for elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Psychological Medicine, 31, 717–723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291701003890, , , , , , & ([Page 198]2008). COPD education and cognitive behavioural therapy group treatment for clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD: a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 38, 385–396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291707001687, , , , , , , , , , & (2006). Elderly depressed patients: what are their views on treatment options?Aging & Mental Health, 10, 204–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860500310633, , , & (2006) Digging deep into depression: the phenomenon of overgeneralised autobiographical memory in depression. The Psychologist, 19, 278–281.(2009). Collaborative case conceptualization: working effectively with clients in cognitive behavioral therapy. New York: Guilford Press., , & (2001) Cognitive therapy for late life depression: Does research evidence suggest adaptations are necessary for cognitive therapy with older adults?Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice, 8, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.276(2008a). Cognitive behaviour therapy, in R. T.Woods & L.Clare (Eds.), Handbook of the clinical psychology of ageing ((2nd Edn). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.2008b). Using CBT with older people with post-stroke depression. In D.Gallagher-Thompson, A.Steffen, & L. W.Thompson (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral and cognitive therapies with older adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons.(2008c). Cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in Parkinson's disease. In K.Laidlaw & B.G.Knight (Eds.), Handbook of the assessment and treatment of emotional disorders in later life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780198569459.001.0001(2010a). Are attitudes to ageing and wisdom enhancement legitimate targets for CBT for late life depression?Nordic Psychology, 62(2), 27–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1901-2276/a000009(2010b). Enhancing cognitive behaviour therapy with older people using gerontological theories as vehicles for change. In N. A.Pachana, K.Laidlaw, & B. G.Knight (Eds.), Casebook of clinical geropsychology: international perspectives on practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199583553.001.0001(2013a). Self-acceptance and aging: using self-acceptance as a mediator of change in CBT with depressed and anxious older people. In M. E.Bernard (Ed.), The strength of self-acceptance. Melbourne: Springer.(2013b). ViewPoint: a deficit in psychotherapeutic care for older people with depression and anxiety. Gerontology: International Journal of Experimental, Clinical, Behavioural, Regenerative and Technological Gerontology, DOI: 10.1159/000351439.(2013c). CBT for late life anxiety: not yet fulfilling its potential with older people?DCP Clinical Psychology Forum (Newsletter), 250, 18–24.(2008). Cognitive-behaviour therapy: how is it different with older people?Journal of Rational Emotive Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 26(4), 250–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10942-008-0085-6& (2009). Aging, mental health, and demographic change: challenges for psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 601–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017215& (2011). CE Corner: Aging with grace. Monitor on Psychology, Nov., 66–71.& (2008). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy with Older People. In K.Laidlaw & B. G.Knight (Eds.), Handbook of the assessment and treatment of emotional disorders in later life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780198569459.001.0001& ([Page 199]2003). Cognitive behavioural therapy with older people. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470713402, , , & (2004). Comprehensive conceptualisation of cognitive behaviour therapy for late life depression. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 32, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465804001584, , & (2007). The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ): development and psychometric properties. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 367–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1683, , & (2008). A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy versus treatment as usual in the treatment of mild to moderate late life depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(8), 843–850. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1993, , , , , , , , & (2012). Assessment of cognitive fluctuation in dementia: a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(10), 989–998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2823, , & (2001). A brief behavioral activation treatment for depression. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8, 164–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229%2801%2980022-5, , , , & (2011). Ten year revision of the brief behavioural activation treatment for depression (BAT-D): revised treatment manual (BATD-R). Behavior Modification, 35, 111–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445510390929, , , , & (2005). Generalized anxiety disorder in late life: lifetime course and comorbidity with major depressive disorder. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 77–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00019442-200501000-00011, , , , , , , , & (2003). Mind matters: cognitive and physical effects of aging self-stereotypes. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 203–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/58.4.P203(2008). Rigidity as a predictor of older persons' aging stereotypes and aging self-perceptions. Social Behavior and Personality, 36, 559–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2008.36.4.559(2009). Stereotype embodiment: a psychosocial approach to aging. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 332–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01662.x(2009). The stereotype-matching effect: Greater influence on functioning when age stereotypes correspond to outcomes. Psychology & Aging, 24, 230–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014563& (1986). Control your depression. New York: Prentice Hall., , , & (2010). Development and validation of the Caregiver Guilt Questionnaire. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 650–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210000074, , , & (2004). Monitoring depression treatment outcomes with the patient health questionnaire-9. Medical Care, 42, 1194–1201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-200412000-00006, , , , & (2010). Dementia 2010: The economic burden of dementia and associated research funding in the United Kingdom. Alzheimer's Research Trust., , & ([Page 200]2010). Stress generation in depression: a systematic review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future study. Clinical Psychology, 30, 582–593.& (2008). Naturalistic outcomes of minor and subsyndromal depression in older primary care patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 773–781. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1982(2010). Nothing ventured, nothing gained: risk guidance on dementia. London: Department of Health.& (2010). Behavioral activation for depression: a clinician's guide. New York: Guilford Press., , & (2001). The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology, 5, 100–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-26220.127.116.11(2006) The redemptive self: Generativity and stories Americans live by. Research in Human Development, 3, 81–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2006.9683363(2010). Autobiographical memory and the construction of a narrative identity. In J. E.Maddux & J. P.Tangney (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology. New York: Guilford Press.& (2012). The way early-onset chronically depressed patients are treated today makes me sad. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 9–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojpsych.2012.21002(2007). Prevalence of depression in older people in England and Wales: The MRC CFA study. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1787–1795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291707000372, , , , , , & (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2890%2990135-6, , , & (2010). Diagnostic validity and added value of the Geriatric Depression Scale for depression in primary care: A meta-analysis of the GDS30 and GDS15. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125, 10–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.019, , , & (2005). Attentional bias in generalized anxiety disorder versus depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 29–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-1646-y& (The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med, 6(7), e1000097. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097, , , & ,2005). The role of executive functioning in CBT: A pilot study with anxious older adults. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 43, 447–465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2004.03.007& (2009). Interpersonal effects of suffering in older adult caregiving relationships. Psychology & Aging, 24, 681–695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016355& (2009). Dysfunctional thoughts about caregiving questionnaire: Psychometric properties of a new measure. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 913–921. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610209990366, , , & (1999). The Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric properties with older adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 5, 19–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022986728576, , , , , & (NAO, National Audit Office (2011). Services for people with neurological conditions. Report by the comptroller and auditor general, HC 1586, Session 2010-12. London: Department of Health, NAO.2009). Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: Two different ways of relating to oneself. Journal of Personality, 77, 23–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00537.x& ([Page 201]1993). The goal is to say ‘goodbye’ and have the treatment effects generalize and maintain: a cognitive-behavioral view of termination. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 7(4), 251–264.& (NES, NHS Education for Scotland (2011) The Psychology Matrix. Available at http://www.nes.scot.nhs.uk/media/20137/Psychology%20Matrix%202013.pdf (accessed August 2014).1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/16.2.134, , & (NICE, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2012). Generalised anxiety disorder in adults: evidence update September 2012. Manchester: NICE. Available at: http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/evidence-update-222003). Psychological treatment of late life anxiety: an empirical review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 643–651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.4.643& (2013). The Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale: a meta-confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74, 74–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.10.010, , , , & (Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2009). Dementia: ethical issues. Cambridge: Nuffield Council on Bioethics.2008). A relational take on termination in cognitive-behavioral therapy. In W. T.O'Donohue & M.Cucciare (Eds.), Terminating psychotherapy: a clinician's guide (pp. 183–204). New York: Routledge.& (ONS, Office of National Statistics (2011a). Older People's Day 2011. Statistical Bulletin. London: ONS.ONS, Office of National Statistics (2011b). Estimates of Centenarians in the UK, 2010. Statistical Bulletin. London: ONS.ONS, Office of National Statistics (2011c). Health expectancies at birth and at age 65 in the United Kingdom, 2007-2009. Statistical Bulletin. London: ONS.ONS, Office of National Statistics (2012). 2011 census: population estimates for the United Kingdom, 27 March 2011 (17 December 2012). Statistical Bulletin. London: ONS.1990). The effect of mild to moderate dementia on the geriatric depression scale and on the general health questionnaire. Age & Ageing, 19, 57–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/19.1.57, , , , , & (2014). Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety in dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5, CD009125. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009125., , & (2011). Cognitive behavioural therapy in anxiety disorders: Current state of the evidence. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13, 413–421.(1995). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression, Part III: reducing cognitive biases. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 25, 311–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02306567(1998). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression, Part X: reducing the risk of relapse. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 28, 381–396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022970527103(2007). Development and validation of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 103–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610206003504, , , , , & (1993). Socratic questioning: changing minds or guided discovery?Paper presented at the European Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, London.([Page 202]1990). Presenting the cognitive model to clients. International Cognitive Therapy Newsletter, 6, 13–14.& (2009). Practical suggestions on how to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease with common cognitive tests. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 1405–1412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2277, , , & (2010). Peaceful mind: an open trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in persons with dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 1012–1021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210000694, , , , , , , & (1989). Cognitive therapy in practice: A case formulation approach. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.(2008). The case formulation approach to cognitive-behavior therapy. New York: Guilford Press.(2001). How effective are psychotherapeutic and other psychosocial interventions with older adults? A meta-analysis. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 7, 207–243.& (2006). Helping caregivers of persons with dementia: which interventions work and how large are their effects?International Psychogeriatrics, 18, 577–595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610206003462, & (2011). Spouses, adult children, and children-in-law as caregivers of older adults: a meta-analytic comparison. Psychology & Aging, 26, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021863& (2006). Treatments for later-life depressive conditions: a meta-analytic comparison of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1493–1501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.9.1493, , & (2007). Effects of psychotherapy and other behavioural interventions on clinically depressed older adults: a meta analysis. Aging & Mental Health, 11, 645–657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860701529635, , & (2012). Special issue: baby boomers. not your mother's old age: baby boomers at age 65. The Gerontologist, 52, 149–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gns038(2009). Older peoples' attitudes to mental illness. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 16, 33–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.598, , (RCP, Royal College of Psychiatrists (2012). Individual patient outcome measures recommended for use in older people's mental health. Prepared by the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Faculty of the Psychiatry of Old Age. Occasional Paper, OP86, October 2012. London: RCP.2003). Validation of the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale in elderly subjects in three different settings. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 694–698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0579.2003.00216.x, , , , , , , , & (2013). Validation of the Caregiver Guilt Questionnaire (CGQ) in a sample of British dementia caregivers. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(12), 2001–2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610213001506, , , & (2011). The transition to dementia – individual and family experiences of receiving a diagnosis: a review. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 1026–1034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210002437, , , , , , , & (2012). Cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in advanced Parkinson's disease: a case illustration. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 5, 60–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X12000049& ([Page 203]2007). The competences required to deliver effective cognitive and behavioural therapy for people with depression and anxiety disorders. London: Department of Health.& (2011). Selection, optimization and compensation: strategies to maintain, maximize and generate resources in late life in the face of chronic illnesses. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 54, 224–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2010.539589, , & (1992). Applying cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy to the chronically ill elderly: treatment issues and case illustration. International Psychogeriatrics, 4, 127–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610292000954, , , , , & (2009). An integrated model for defining the scope of psychogeriatrics: The five Cs. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 805–812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S104161020999010X(1996). Interpersonal process in cognitive therapy. New Jersey: Jason Aronson.& (1999). An experimental investigation of the role of safety-seeking behaviours in the maintenance of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behaviour, Research & Therapy, 37, 559–574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2898%2900153-3, , , , & (2011). The effectiveness of behavioural therapy for the treatment of depression in older adults: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 1211–1220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2680, , & (2010). Emotional aging: recent findings and future trends. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65, 135–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp132& (2003). A series of brief cognitive therapy interventions with people experiencing both dementia and depression. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 10, 175–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.368& (Scogin, F. & Shah, A. (Eds.). (2012). Making evidence-based psychological treatments work with older adults. Washington, DC: APA. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13753-0002005). Evidence-based psychotherapies for depression in older adults. Clinical Psycholology: Science and Practice, 12, 222–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpi033, , , , & (2010). Mental health service use among Canadian older adults with anxiety disorders and clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Aging & Mental Health, 14, 790–800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607861003713273, , , & (2008). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) among community-dwelling older adults. Behavior Modification, 32, 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445507303833, , , & (2010). Development and initial validation of a self-report assessment tool for anxiety among older adults: the geriatric anxiety scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002, , , , & (2007). Systematic review of the effect of psychological interventions for family caregivers of people with dementia. Journal of Affective Disorders, 101, 75–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2006.10.025, , , , & (2009). Clinical effectiveness of individual cognitive behavioural therapy for depressed older people in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 1332–1340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.165, , , , , & ([Page 204]2011). A talking control for use in evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 49, 433–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2011.05.005, , , , & (1997). Screening for depression among acutely ill geriatric inpatients with a short geriatric depression scale. Age and Ageing, 26, 217–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/26.3.217, , , , & (2014). Life course influences of physical and cognitive function on Attitudes to Ageing in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. International Psychogeriatrics, 26(9), 1417–1430., , , , , & (2009). Reliability and validity of the geriatric depression scale in detection of poststroke minor depression. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 31, 999–1006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803390902776878, , , , , , , , & (2011). Cognitive behavior therapy with older adults: innovation across care settings. New York: Springer.& (2013). I can't forget to worry: a pilot randomized controlled trial of CBT for anxiety in people with dementia. NIHR, Research for Patient Benefit (FrPB). Programme, Final Report Form., , , , , , & (Williams, J. B. W., for the Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ Primary Care Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1737–1744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.18.1737, , &2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 1092–1097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092, , , & (2001). Assessing older adults with generalized anxiety: a replication and extension. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39, 221–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2800%2900030-9, , , , & (2009). Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder among older adults in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 1460–1467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.458, , & (2011). Psychological wisdom research: commonalities and differences in a growing field. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 215–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131659& (2012). The science of wisdom: implications for psychotherapy. In C. K.Germer & R. D.Siegel (Eds.), Wisdom and compassion in psychotherapy: Deepening mindfulness in clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press Inc.(1994). Behavioral treatment of depression in patients with dementia. Alzheimer's Disease and Associated Disorders, 8, (Suppl. 3), 66–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002093-199404000-00007(1997). Behavioral treatment of depression in dementia patients: a controlled clinical trial. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 52, 159–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/52B.4.P159, , , (2009). Meta-analysis comparing different behavioural treatments for late life anxiety. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 105–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31818b3f7e, , , , , & ([Page 205]2002). Guidelines for enhancing homework compliance. JCLP/In session: Psychotherapy in Practice, 58, 565–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10033(2013). A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled treatment trials for depression and anxiety in Parkinson's disease. PLoS One, 8(11), e79510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079510.s001, , & (UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2011). World population prospects: the 2010 revision, Highlights and advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.220.UNFPA, United Nations Population Fund and HelpAge International (2012). Ageing in the twenty-first century: a celebration and a challenge. New York: UNFPA.1999). Treating depressed older adults in primary care: narrowing the gap between efficacy and effectiveness. Milbank Quarterly, 77, 225–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.00132, , , & (2011). Cognitive reframing for carers of people with dementia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD005318., , , & (2008). Risk factors for anxiety and depression in the elderly: a review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 106, 27–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.06.005, , & (2004). Cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in a person with Alzheimer's dementia. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 32, 495–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465804001663(2009). Evidence-based treatment and therapist drift. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 47, 119–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.10.018(2011). Evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety versus treatment as usual: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 1304–1312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.07.012, , , , , , , , & (2006). The criterion validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114, 398–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00888.x, , , , (2009). Concreteness training reduces dysphoria: proof-of-principle for repeated cognitive bias modification in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 55–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0013642, , & (2005). The Beck Anxiety Inventory in Older Adults with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 27, 17–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-005-3261-3& (2005). Evidence-based treatment of geriatric anxiety disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 28, 871–896. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2005.09.006, , & (WHO (1980). International classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Geneva: WHO.WHO (2012). Dementia: A public health priority. Geneva: WHO.2013). Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder in elderly people using the GAD-7 and GAD-2 scales: Results of a validation study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.076., , , , , , , , , & (2000). Unconditional positive regard reconsidered. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 28, 23–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/030698800109592([Page 206]2005). Performance of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool for depression after stroke. Stroke, 36, 635–638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000155688.18207.33, , , , , , & (2008). Psychotherapeutic treatments for older depressed people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1. Art. No.: CD004853. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD0044853.pub2., , & (2010). Anxiety disorders in older adults: a comprehensive review. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 190–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20653, , , , & (2009). Grief counseling and grief therapy ((4th ed.). New York: Springer.1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39, 37–49., , , , , , & (2011). Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Scale: comparison to the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. Clinical Gerontologist, 34, 21–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317115.2011.524600, , , & (1996). Treatment issues with elderly clients. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 3, 371–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229%2896%2980024-1& (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x& (