Bridging the Social Gap: Perspectives on Dalit Empowerment

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Edited by: Sukhadeo Thorat & Nidhi Sadana Sabharwal

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    Dedication

    To those who struggle to bring change at the grass-roots level

    Paul Diwakar, Martin Macwan, Bejwara Wilson, Vimal Thorat, S. Prasad, Henry Thiagaraj, Sudha Varghese, Manjula Pradeep, Jai Singh, Ruth Manorama, Ram Kumar, Eknath Awad, P. L. Mimroth, Grace Nirmala and Gagan Sethi

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    List of Tables

    • 3.1 Civil Rights Violations 16
    • 3.2 Social Rights Violations 17
    • 3.3 Economic Rights Violations 18
    • 3.4 Political Rights Violations 19
    • 3.5 Cultural Rights Violations 20
    • 3.6 Abuse and Crime against SC Women 20
    • 3A.1 Nature and Pattern of Atrocities against SCs and STs 32
    • 3A.2 State-wise Incidence of Violation of Civil Rights and Atrocities against SCs in India 34
    • 3A.3 Statement Showing Cases with Courts under the PCR Act and Their Disposal during 2002 35
    • 3A.4 State-wise Incidence of Violation of Civil Rights and Atrocities against STs in India 36
    • 4.1 High- and Low-HDI States 39
    • 4.2 Human Development Index—Levels and Disparity, 1980–2000 42
    • 4.3 Human Poverty Index—Level, Disparity and Changes, 1990–2000, All India 49
    • 5.1 Rate of Growth in Real MPCE: All India 66
    • 5A.1 State Variations in MPCE by Social Groups, 1999–2000 70
    • 5A.2 Inter-group Disparities in MPCE, 1999–2000 (Based on Ratios) 72
    • 5A.3 Changes in MPCE Level—Rural and Urban SCs 73
    • 5A.4 Changes in MPCE Level—Rural and Urban STs 75
    • 5A.5 Changes in MPCE Level—Rural and Urban Non-SCs/STs 76
    • 5A.6 Changes in Disparities—Rural Areas 78
    • 5A.7 Changes in Disparities—Urban Areas 79
    • 6.1 Incidences of Poverty (HCR) across Social Groups, 1999–2000 82
    • 6.2 Disparities in Incidence of Poverty across Social Groups in 1999–2000 (Percentage Points) 84
    • 6.3 Average Annual Percentage Change in Head Count Ratio by Social Groups in Rural Areas 88
    • 6.4 Average Annual Percentage Change in Head Count Ratio by Social Groups in Urban Areas 89
    • 6A.1 Incidence of Poverty by HCR among Social Groups and Religions, 1999–2000 92
    • 6A.2 Incidence of Poverty by HCR in Rural Areas for Major States, 1999–2000 93
    • 6A.3 Incidence of Poverty by HCR in Rural Areas for Smaller States, 1999–2000 93
    • 6A.4 Incidence of Poverty by HCR in Urban Areas for Major States, 1999–2000 94
    • 6A.5 Incidence of Poverty by HCR in Urban Areas for Smaller States, 1999–2000 95
    • 6A.6 Disparities in Incidence of Poverty for Major States, 1999–2000 (in Percentage Points) 95
    • 6A.7 Disparities in Incidence of Poverty between SCs/STs and Non-SCs/STs in Smaller States, 1999–2000 (in Percentage Points) 96
    • 6A.8 Poverty Head Count Index by Social Groups and Religion in Rural Sector 97
    • 6A.9 Social Group-wise Incidence of Poverty (HCR) for Major States in Rural Areas 99
    • 6A.10 Social Group-wise Incidence of Poverty (HCR) for Smaller States in Rural Areas 100
    • 6A.11 Average Annual Rate of Decline of HCR between 1983 and 1999–2000 (in Percentage Points) 101
    • 6A.12 Poverty Head Count Index by Social Groups and Religion in Urban Areas 102
    • 6A.13 Social Group-wise Incidence of Poverty (HCR) for Major States in Urban Areas 103
    • 6A.14 Social Group-wise Incidence of Poverty (HCR) for Smaller States in Urban Areas 104
    • 6A.15 Average Annual Rate of Decline of HCR between 1993—1994 and 1999–2000 (in Percentage Points) 105
    • 6A.16 Disparities in Incidence of Poverty in Rural Areas for Major States (in Percentage Points) 106
    • 6A.17 Disparities in Incidence of Poverty for Major States in Urban Areas (in Percentage Points) 106
    • 6A.18 Disparities in Incidence of Poverty in Smaller States (in Percentage Points) 107
    • 7.1 Trends in Literacy Rates and Literacy Gaps by Social Groups, 1961—2001 109
    • 7.2 School Dropout Rates for Boys and Girls by Stages of Education and Social Groups 116
    • 7.3 Participation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Higher Education in India between 1991 and 2001 118
    • 7A.1 Literacy Rates for Social Groups by Sex and Place of Residence, 2001 124
    • 7A.2 Literacy Rates and Inter-group Gaps by Social Groups and Sex, 1991 125
    • 7A.3 Literacy Rates and Inter-group Gaps by Social Groups and Sex, 2001 127
    • 7A.4 Decadal Change in Literacy Rates, 1991—2001 129
    • 7A.5 Educational Attainment by Age and Levels for Social Groups, 2001 130
    • 7A.6 Educational Attainment for Population Aged 15+ Years by Social Groups and Sex, 2001 131
    • 7A.7 School Attendance Rates among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years by Social Groups (NSSO, Different Rounds) 131
    • 7A.8 School Attendance Rates among Children in Age Group of 5—14 Years in Rural Areas (NSSO, 1993—1994) 132
    • 7A.9 Age-specific Attendance Ratio by Social Groups, Census 2001 133
    • 7A.10 School Dropout Rates by Stages of Education and Social Groups, 2002 135
    • 7A.11 Participation and Coefficient of Equality in Higher Education for Scheduled Castes 135
    • 7A.12 Participation and Coefficient of Equality in Higher Education for Scheduled Tribes 136
    • 7A.13 Rural Households with No Literate Member Aged 15+ Years by MPCE and Social Groups, NSS, 1999–2000 137
    • 7A.14 Availability of Primary Schools in Rural Habitations 138
    • 7A.15 Pupil—Teacher Ratio and Schools with Single or No Teacher, 2002 139
    • 8.1 Growth of Housing Stock and Index of Housing Shortage (in Millions), 1961—2001 142
    • 8.2 Percentage of Households Who Have Access to Household Amenities by Social Groups, All India, 1991 and 2001 147
    • 8A.1 Condition of Housing by Social Groups, 2001 150
    • 8A.2 Percentage of Households Living in Houses with Pucca Roofs and Walls by Social Groups, 2001 150
    • 8A.3 Materials Used for Roofs in SC Houses, All India, 2001 151
    • 8A.4 Materials Used for Walls—Share of SC Households, All India, 2001 151
    • 8A.5 Distribution of Households by Number of Dwelling Units, All India, 1991 and 2001 152
    • 8A.6 Distribution of Households by House Tenure and Share by Social Groups, 1991 and 2001 152
    • 8A.7 SC and Non-SC/ST Households by Sources of Drinking Water, 2001 153
    • 9.1 Infant and Childhood Mortality Indicators for the Social Groups, All India 157
    • 9.2 Preventive and Curative Care for Children by Social Groups 161
    • 9A.1 Nutritional Status of Women and Children for Social Groups 168
    • 9A.2 Maternal Healthcare by Social Groups 168
    • 10.1 Share and Growth of Rural Main Workers in Agriculture Sector, All India (Per Cent) 170
    • 10.2 Distribution of All-India Rural Household Workers Engaged in Agriculture and Non-agriculture Sectors by Social Groups (Rural) (Per Cent) 172
    • 10.3 Disparity Ratio for All-India Workers Engaged in Agriculture and Non-agriculture Sectors 173
    • 10.4 Percentage of All-India Rural Cultivators and Agricultural Labourer Main Workers by Social Groups 174
    • 10.5 All-India Rural Households, SEA and Agricultural Labourers (Per Cent) 174
    • 10.6 Percentage Distribution of Workers Engaged in Non-agricultural Sector to Total Rural Main Workers by Social Groups 176
    • 10.7 Distribution of Rural Non-agricultural Households According to Household Type 177
    • 10.8 Percentage Distribution of Urban Households in Non-agricultural Occupations 178
    • 10A.1 Percentage Share of Rural SC Workers Engaged in Agriculture Sector to Total Rural SC Main Workers 181
    • 10A.2 Percentage Share of Rural ST Workers Engaged in Agriculture Sector to Total Rural ST Main Workers 182
    • 10A.3 Disparity Ratio of Workers Engaged in Agriculture Sector 183
    • 10A.4 Percentage Distribution of SC Rural Households Engaged in Agriculture Sector 184
    • 10A.5 Disparity Ratio of Rural Agricultural Workers 185
    • 10A.6 Percentage Distribution of ST Rural Households Engaged in Agriculture Sector 186
    • 10A.7 Per Cent of SC Cultivators among Rural Main Workers 187
    • 10A.8 Per Cent of ST Cultivators among Rural Main Workers 188
    • 10A.9 Disparity Index of Workers Engaged as Rural Cultivators 189
    • 10A.10 Percentage Distribution of SC Main Rural Workers in Household Industry 190
    • 10A.11 Percentage Distribution of ST Main Rural Workers in Household Industry 191
    • 10A.12 Disparity Index of Workers Engaged in Household Industry 192
    • 10A.13 Proportion of Rural Households Engaged as Self-employed in Non-agriculture 193
    • 10A.14 Percentage Distribution of Urban SC Households by Household Type, 1999–2000 194
    • 10A.15 Distribution of Urban ST Households by Household Type, 1999–2000 195
    • 11.1 Percentage Distribution of All-India Rural Households by Size of Land Owned, 1999 197
    • 11.2 Level of Capital Assets at All-India Level by Categories of Assets, 1992 201
    • 11A.1 Disparity of Land Assets Owned by Households (in Value Terms) among Social Groups, 1991 205
    • 11A.2 Tenancy Status for SCs in India, 1985—1986 206
    • 11A.3 Percentage Distribution of Size and Class-wise Irrigated and Unirrigated Area—Scheduled Castes, 1985—1986 and 1990—1991 207
    • 11A.4 States Classified According to Level of Average Land Assets Owned by Different Social Groups 207
    • 11A.5 States Classified According to Level of Average Agricultural Machinery Owned by Different Social Groups 208
    • 11A.6 States Classified According to Level of Average Livestock, Poultry and Birds Owned by Different Social Groups 209
    • 11A.7 States Classified According to Level of Average Non-farm Business Equipment Owned by Different Social Groups 210
    • 11A.8 States Classified According to Level of Average Buildings, etc. Owned by Different Social Groups 211
    • 11A.9 Level of Aggregate Capital Assets (Per Household) among Social Groups at State Level, 1992 (Value in ₹) 212
    • 11A.10 Disparity of Aggregate Capital Assets (in Value Terms) among Social Groups, 1992 213
    • 12.1 Changes in Rural Employment Level and Social Group Disparity during 1983 to 1999–2000, All India 217
    • 12.2 Changes in Urban Employment Level and Social Group Disparity during 1983 to 1999–2000, All India 220
    • 12.3 Inter-social Group Disparities in Rural Employment Level, All India 223
    • 12.4 Inter-social Group Disparities in Urban Employment Level, All India 225
    • 12A.1 Percentage of Employed Persons Aged Five Years and Above According to Current Daily Status: Rural 228
    • 12A.2 Disparities in Rural Employment Rate (CDS) across Social Groups, 1999–2000 230
    • 12A.3 Percentage Point Change in Rural Employment Level (CDS), 1983 to 1999–2000 231
    • 12A.4 Change in Rural Employment Disparity Ratio, 1983 to 1999–2000 232
    • 12A.5 Percentage of Employed Persons Aged Five Years and Above According to Current Daily Status: Urban 233
    • 12A.6 Disparities in Urban Employment Rate (CDS) across Social Groups, 1999–2000 235
    • 12A.7 Percentage Point Change in Urban Employment Level (CDS), 1983 to 1999–2000 236
    • 12A.8 Change in Urban Employment Disparity Ratio, 1983 to 1999–2000 237
    • 12A.9 Percentage of Unemployed Persons Aged Five Years and Above According to Current Daily Status: Rural 238
    • 12A.10 Percentage Point Change in Rural Unemployment Level (CDS), 1983 to 1999–2000 240
    • 12A.11 Disparities in Rural Unemployment Rate (CDS) across Social Groups, 1999–2000 241
    • 12A.12 Change in Rural Unemployment Disparity Ratio, 1983 to 1999–2000 242
    • 12A.13 Percentage of Unemployed Persons Aged Five Years and Above, According to Current Daily Status: Urban 243
    • 12A.14 Percentage Point Change in Urban Unemployment Level (CDS), 1983 to 1999–2000 245
    • 12A.15 Disparities in Urban Unemployment Rate (CDS) across Social Groups, 1999–2000 246
    • 12A.16 Change in Urban Unemployment Disparity Ratio, 1983 to 1999–2000 247
    • 13.1 Present Percentages of Reservation for SC, ST and OBC in Government Services 249
    • 13.2 Employment Share by Job Categories 252
    • 13.3 Members of Parliament by Social Groups from 5th to 14th Lok Sabha 253
    • 13A.1 Government Employment under Reservation (1956—2003) 254
    • 13A.2 Percentage Share in Government Employment (1956—2003) 256
    • 13A.3 Employment under Reservation in Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) (1970—2003) 257
    • 13A.4 Percentage of SC and ST Employees in Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) (1970—2003) 259

    List of Figures

    • 4.1 Human Development Index for SCs—Regional Variations, 2000 40
    • 4.2 Human Development Index for STs—Regional Variations, 2000 41
    • 4.3 Disparity in HDI Levels during 1980–2000, All India 43
    • 4.4 Disparities between SCs and Non-SCs/STs in HDI, 2000 44
    • 4.5 Human Development Index for Social Groups, All India 44
    • 4.6 Human Poverty Index for SCs—Regional Variation, 2000 47
    • 4.7 Human Poverty Index for STs—Regional Variation, 2000 48
    • 4.8 Human Poverty among Social Groups in India, 1990–2000 50
    • 4.9 Disparity in Human Poverty Index 51
    • 5.1 Real MPCE (Base Year 1983) across Social Groups: 1999–2000 63
    • 6.1 Distribution of Social Groups by Expenditure Classes in 1999–2000 in Rural Areas 85
    • 6.2 Distribution of Social Groups by Expenditure Classes in 1999–2000 in Urban Areas 85
    • 6.3 Incidence of Poverty across Social Groups in Rural India 87
    • 6.4 Incidence of Poverty across Social Groups in Urban India 89
    • 10.1 Disparities in Share of Agricultural Workers to Total Main Workers in Rural India 171
    • 11.1 Per Cent Distribution of Rural SC Household Size of Land Owned 198
    • 11.2 Per Cent Distribution of Rural ST Household Size of Land Owned 199
    • 11.3 Per Cent Distribution of Rural Other Household Size of Land Owned 200
    • 11.4 Disparity of Households Having Buildings (in Value Terms) among Social Groups, 1991 204
    • 12.1 Level of Male Employment (CDS) in Rural India, 1999–2000 215
    • 12.2 Level of Female Employment (CDS) in Rural India, 1999–2000 215
    • 12.3 Level of Male Employment (CDS) in Urban India, 1999–2000 218
    • 12.4 Level of Female Employment (CDS) in Urban India, 1999–2000 219
    • 12.5 Level of Rural Unemployment (CDS) in India, 1999–2000 222
    • 12.6 Changes in Level of Rural Unemployment in India, 1983—1999/2000 222
    • 12.7 Level of Urban Unemployment (CDS) in India, 1999–2000 224
    • 12.8 Changes in Level of Urban Unemployment in India, 1983—1999/2000 225

    List of Abbreviations

    ANCAntenatal Care
    BMIBody Mass Index
    CMRChild Mortality Rate
    CSSMChild Survival and Safe Motherhood
    CPRsCommon Property Resources
    GERGross Enrolment Rate
    GMHPsGovernment Maternal Health Programmes
    HCRHead Count Ratio
    HDIHuman Development Index/Human Deprivation/Poverty Index
    HDRsHuman Development Reports
    IMRInfant Mortality Rate
    IRDPIntegrated Rural Development Programme
    ILOInternational Labour Organisation
    MPCEMonthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure
    NFHSsNational Family Health Surveys
    NHDRNational Human Development Report
    NIEPANational Institute of Educational Planning and Administration
    NSSNational Sample Survey
    NSSONational Sample Survey Organisation
    NGOsNon-Governmental Organisations
    OBCsOther Backward Classes
    PCRProtection of Civil Rights
    PCTEPer Capita Total (Household Consumer) Expenditure
    PHCPrimary Health Centre
    PNCPost Natal Care
    POAPrevention of Atrocities
    PPSProbability Proportion to Size
    PSUsPublic Sector Undertakings
    RCHReproductive and Child Health
    SARSchool Attendance Rate
    SCsScheduled Castes
    SEASelf-Employed in Agriculture
    SENASelf-Employed in Non-Agriculture
    SSASarva Shiksha Abhiyan
    SCPSpecial Component Plann
    SRSSample Registration System
    STsScheduled Tribes
    UIPUniversal Immunisation Programme
    U-5MRUnder Five Mortality Rate
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme
    UTsUnion Territories

    Preface

    This study was initially conceived as an alternative report on Human Development to be designated as a Dalit Development Report. However, the completion took more time. To disaggregate the human development indicators by caste and ethnic groups of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and the rest is a difficult exercise. Difficulties arise primarily because of the lack of group-wise data, although the same data are available at the aggregate level. Therefore, the researchers had to find out and use alternative variables. This was particularly the case for the indicators which are required to construct Human Development and Human Poverty indices. Equally important challenge is the conceptual framework to study issues related to the excluded and indigenous groups of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

    This book has attempted three things: (a) it has developed a conceptual framework to study the causes of low human development of excluded and indigenous groups and estimated the inter-groups disparities in Human Development Index and Human Poverty Index; (b) it constructed the Human Development Index and Human Poverty Index at aggregate level, and disaggregated by groups; and (c) it presents the situation of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in comparison with others, with regard to each individual indicators. With respect to these three aspects, the book does make a contribution, although some of the data are somewhat dated.

    Acknowledgements

    We thank the authors for undertaking special efforts to collect the data and analyse them for the groups. We thank Martin Macwan, the member of the Governing Board and the former Chairman of Indian Institute of Dalit Studies for providing supplementary funding for the project. Thanks to Swiss Development Agency, New Delhi, for supporting this project.

    We thank Tathagata Mandal for editing the draft report and helping with proofs. We thank Narendra Kumar for formatting and designing. Finally, we thank SAGE Publications for publishing this book on a priority basis.

    Introduction

    SukhadeoThorat and NidhiSadanaSabharwal
    Human Development and Social Inequality

    The preparation of Human Development Reports (HDRs) has brought about a significant shift in the notion of human development, insofar as now the emphasis is placed on ‘outcomes of development’ in terms of expansion of income and achievement in the quality of well-being of the people. This perspective recognises that though high per capita income is a prerequisite for human development, a rise in income alone may not necessarily guarantee that people receive what they need the most for their development. Therefore, the focus is centred not only on the generation of higher income but simultaneously how it has improved the quality of people's lives. In order to articulate this shift in perspective, Mahbub-ul-Haq observed:

    For long, the recurrent question was how much was a nation producing? Increasingly, the question now being asked is, ‘how are its people faring?’ Income is only one of the options—and an extremely important one—but it is not the sum total of human life. Health, education, physical environment and freedom may be just as important. (Mahbub-ul-Haq, 1995)

    Within this perspective, the emphasis is on the expansion of the capacities of people—their capability to lead a healthy and creative life; to be well-nourished, secured, well-informed, educated, free and treated as equals. With this shift, human development has begun to be measured in terms of new evaluative criteria which are related to three essential elements of human life—longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living. These three elements are estimated using human development index (HDI) and human deprivation/poverty index (HPI).

    In the course of this development, however, the notion of human development itself has been further widened in terms of its dimensions. Among other conceptual issues which have engaged researchers in the course of widening the dimensions of the concept of human development are those which relate to group inequalities, particularly inequality in human development across groups and its causes. It has been recognised that a common shortcoming in the measure of human development is its failure to capture the distributional dimensions in human development. The latter represent averages that conceal wide disparities in overall population. Therefore, efforts are made to make the analysis of human development more distribution-sensitive. The incorporation of the distributive aspects necessitated, first, a disaggregation of HDI and HPI by various groups such as class, ethnicity, religion, caste and other disadvantaged groups, and secondly, analysis of causal factors associated with a lower level of human development among certain disadvantaged groups.

    Among other factors, the deprivation of marginalised groups like women, and ethnic, social, religious and other minorities generally occurs through the process of exclusion and discrimination. Efforts are, thus, directed towards understanding the societal interrelations and the institutions of exclusion, the prevalent forms of exclusion and discrimination, and their consequences on deprivation of these groups.

    Limited instances of disaggregating indicators of human development by social groups are to be found in the HDRs of some countries. The countries which have disaggregated the individual indicators of HDI by groups are Malaysia, Gabon, Nepal, the United States, Canada, Guatemala and India. In Malaysia, for instance, the HDI has been worked out separately for the Chinese, the Indian and the Malaya ethnic groups. Similar exercises have been initiated in the United States for the African-Americans, native Americans and American whites (Halis Akder, 1994). In Nepal too, HDI has been worked out for the low-caste and the high-caste groups.

    The attempts made to develop the concepts and methodologies to assess the impact of social exclusion on human deprivation are, however, limited in number. The efforts to develop the indicators of exclusion and to capture them in indices are even fewer. The HDRs of 2000 and 2004 prepared by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) made some headway with respect to dimensions of exclusion as well as indicators of exclusion.

    At the conceptual level, the HDR 2000 brought to the fore a close link between equal human rights and human development, and emphasised the role of equal opportunity and choices as one of the pillars of human development. Exclusion and discrimination lead to restriction and denial of human rights. It is recognised that the deprivation of disadvantaged groups works through the societal process of exclusion which involves differential treatment and unequal access which in turn hinders human development. Therefore, liberation from discrimination becomes a necessary pre-condition for human development. The HDR 2004 extended the focus to cultural liberty and asserted that cultural liberty is central to the advancement of the capabilities of people. In the context of minorities in multi-ethnic states and indigenous people, it recognised two forms of cultural exclusions, namely (a) living mode exclusion which denies recognition to and accommodation of a lifestyle that a particular group would choose to have, and (b) participation exclusion which involves denial of social, political and economic opportunities for development to lower-caste groups who are discriminated against. Living mode exclusion often overlaps and intertwines with social, economic and political exclusion by fostering discrimination and disadvantages in terms of access to resources, employment, housing, schooling and political representation.

    India's Human Development Report and Socially Disadvantaged Groups

    Following the release of HDRs, the Indian government also initiated the preparation of the National Human Development Report (NHDR) and similar reports for individual states. The first NHDR was prepared in 2001 and so far about 14 State Human Development Reports (SHDRs) have been prepared by the individual states.

    Given the iniquitous and hierarchal character of Indian society and exclusion-linked deprivation of a large section of excluded groups and groups which are discriminated against, namely the Scheduled Castes (SCs), the Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Other Backward Classes (OBCs), which constitute more than half of India's population and have specific constitutional provisions, legal safeguards and reservation policies, the NHDRs and SHDRs specifically deal with dimensions of human development in relation to these disadvantaged groups. Hitherto, such exercises have been confined to the disaggregation of the individual indicators of human development and human poverty in a selective manner, without estimating the composite index of human development or human poverty of the social groups. The indicators used to disaggregate data by social groups vary from state to state. The Indian NHDR 2001 disaggregated consumption expenditure, access to toilet facilities, safe drinking water, electricity and literacy levels at the all-India level and observed that the attainment levels for SCs and STs seemed to be lower than for the others (non-SCs/STs) (Planning Commission, 2002: 11).

    Similar methods to assess the attainment levels of social groups by employing selective indicators have been followed by a number of SHDRs. Most of the SHDRs employ indicators of literacy and only a few states supplement the literacy level by using poverty ratio, land ownership and health indicators. For instance, the SHDRs of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Assam and Punjab provide attainment rates for literacy among SCs, STs and others (the Himachal Pradesh SHDR also reports the enrolment ratio by social groups). Among these states, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu also indicate the poverty level by social groups. The SHDRs of Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim and West Bengal further disaggregate land ownership and share of land and beneficiary of land reform by social groups. Some states like Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal include work participation rate, unemployment rate, sex ratio and urbanisation rate by social groups. The Punjab SHDR provides disaggregated results by social groups for literacy rate, employment pattern which includes employment under reservation, and child mortality rates.

    The data provided in SHDRs related to SCs and STs is selective and limited in terms of the choice of indicators. Nevertheless, it clearly shows that any simple disaggregation by social groups for education (like literacy rate, enrolment ratios, etc.), healthcare (child mortality), access to resources (land ownership, employment rate) and urbanisation, among other indicators, reveal that SCs and STs lag quite far behind the other sections of Indian society.

    This review indicates that despite the group-focus or approach in the development policies of central and state governments (in terms of due recognition of their specific problems, provision of legal safeguards, reservation and various other affirmative action policies, with stipulated objectives to reduce gaps in human development and human poverty between them and other sections of the Indian population), SHDRs generally avoid dealing with issues of inter-social group disparity in human development and human poverty in a focused manner, namely either by using a coherent set of indicators of human development (for example, life expectancy, literacy rate, enrolment ratio and some measures of access to resources), and human poverty (for example, illiteracy, dropout rate and lack of access to safe drinking water, public health services and electricity) or through estimation of a composite index of human development and human poverty by social groups. In addition, there is inadequate discourse on conceptualising caste-and ethnicity-based exclusion and discrimination, and its linkages with human deprivation faced by disadvantaged groups. Similarly, there has been no attempt to develop indicators which capture exclusion, discrimination and impact variables. In this context, the observations of Madhya Pradesh SHDR are relevant as it recognised the need to address such an issue.

    There is a need to look inward, within the country to identify groups that fare poorly in human development as against spatially, in terms of how districts fare or sectors fare. Deprivation in India has an obvious face of exclusion, the SCs due to social exclusion, and the STs due to geographical and cultural exclusion. The SCs suffer from deprivation on account of the residual power of a discriminatory caste system which though made illegal, continues to sway as a social force, whereas the STs see their predicament as victims of the state which denies them property rights to their habitat. An SC and ST development index needs to be developed by professionals to capture their deprivations so as to goad the state policy to address them. A broad attainment index, does not effectively address the roots of these very important deprivations in the Indian context. The process of democracy is at work to draw these people in the mainstream and seek to address their specific concerns. How well this is being done needs to be assessed through the development of SC/ST development index. (Madhya Pradesh State Human Development Report, 2002: 9)

    Approach of the Present Book

    This book focuses on the issues of inter-social group inequalities in human development and exclusion-linked human deprivation of socially disadvantaged groups in Indian society. It attempts to address four interrelated issues which are mentioned below.

    First, drawing from the prevailing theoretical literature, it conceptualises exclusion-linked deprivation of socially disadvantaged groups in Indian society; and elaborates the concept and meaning of social exclusion, in general, and of caste, untouchability and ethnicity-based exclusion, in particular. Second, it presents the status of disadvantaged groups, namely SCs and STs, and captures the inter-social group inequalities with respect to attainment in human development and human poverty by constructing HDI and HPI and also by analysing the individual indicators of well-being. Third, it analyses the economic factors associated with high level of deprivation among socially disadvantaged groups in terms of lower access to resources, employment, education and social needs. Fourth, it examines the role of caste discrimination in economic, civil, social and political spheres which involves denial of or selective restrictions on the right to development or equal opportunities for socially disadvantaged groups.

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    About the Editors and Contributors

    Editors

    Sukhadeo Thorat is Chairman, Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR); former Chairman of University Grants Commission (UGC); and Professor of Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He has a BA (Milind College of Arts, Aurangabad, Maharashtra), MA in Economics (Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad), MPhil/PhD in Economics (Jawaharlal Nehru University) and Diploma in Economic Planning (Main School of Planning, Warsaw, Poland). His research areas include agricultural development, rural poverty, institution and economic growth, problems of marginalised groups, economics of caste system, caste discrimination and poverty. He was the Director of the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies, New Delhi from 2003 to 2006 and the Research Associate of International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA, since 1992.

    Nidhi Sadana Sabharwal is currently the Director at the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies (IIDS), New Delhi. She is also in charge of the Gender and Social Exclusion Studies Unit at IIDS. She has a PhD from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, with specialisation in economic geography, and has significant experience in human development research. She has published articles on caste, ethnicity and economic discrimination, caste and religion links to malnutrition and child labour. She has extensive experience in data collection and analysis and policy advocacy. She has actively worked on key issues affecting the poor and vulnerable in India, through organisations based in India and the United Kingdom.

    Contributors

    Vijay Kumar Baraik is the Reader in Geography in the School of Sciences at Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi. His areas of interests are regional development and planning especially in the tribal areas of India and applications of geoinformatics in research and development. He has succefully applied geoinformatics in development planning and eGovernance.

    Ashwini Deshpande is the Professor in the Department of Economics at Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi. Her areas of specialisation include economics of discrimination with a focus on caste and gender in India, inequalities and group disparities; aspects of the Chinese economy; and International debt.

    R. S. Deshpande is the Director, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru. His specialisations include agricultural development policy, watershed development, agriculture and trade, rural policy and poverty, economics of drought-prone areas and rainfed regions, economics of irrigation, policy analysis and applied econometrics.

    Amaresh Dubey is Professor of Economics in the Centre for the Study of Regional Development, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. His research interest includes poverty assessment, education and labour markets.

    Arjan de Haan leads the International Development Research Centre's (Canada) programme supporting inclusive growth, social and economic policy. He is a development expert who focuses on public policy and poverty in Asia. His expertise is on social policy, social exclusion, poverty measurement and migration.

    P. M. Kulkarni is Professor in Population Studies, in the Centre for the Study of Regional Development, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. His areas of specialisation include health, health policies and demographic techniques.

    Motilal Mahamallik is Assistant Professor at the Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur. His areas of specialisation include poverty and human development with a focus on marginalised groups, rural agrarian institutions, social exclusion and economics of discrimination.

    Prashant Negi is Assistant Professor in Dr K. R. Narayanan Centre for Dalit and Minorities Studies and Programme for Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. He is a sociologist whose areas of specialisation are theoretical approaches to social exclusion, development theory, challenges of transformation and change, and topical issues pertaining to Tribals/Dalits, marginality and deprivation. He is particularly interested in the psychology of discrimination and exclusion, and the pedagogy of oppression.

    Chittaranjan Senapati is Asssistant Professor of Politics and International Relations at the Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar. His areas of specialisation include industrial development, marginalised groups, ethnicity, poverty, exclusion and inclusive policy.

    Sachidanand Sinha is Associate Professor, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. His areas of specialisation include education, health and study of marginalised groups.

    M. Thangaraj is Professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Madras. His areas of specialisation include economic development, marginalised groups and discrimination.

    S. Venkatesan is currently working as the Programme Administrator with DanChurch Aid, South Asia Regional Office, New Delhi. His areas of specialisation include caste, social exclusion, power relations, human development, Dalit development, public policy, civil society and social justice.


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