An Invitation to Cultural Psychology


Jaan Valsiner

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • SAGE

    SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups, and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.

    Find out more at:


    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures and Table

    • 1.1 A designed hole as a part of the architectural building (commercial center at Zeil, Frankfurt-am-Main) 9
    • 1.2 A deeply symbolic form in a daily context (a street entrance to a small temple in a side street of Kyoto, Japan) 12
    • 1.3Svastik embedded in Ancient Greek ornament, 6th–5th century BC (Wilson, 1896, p. 839) 13
    • 1.4 The psyche in-between two infinities 14
    • 1.5 A young Chinese woman praying in front of a Kannon figure in Shanghai 15
    • 1.6 The structure of uncertainties in human lives: SELF<>OTHERS and PAST<>FUTURE (SC = Self as Center, turning towards various others around her/him) 17
    • 1.7 Coordination within double uncertainty SELF<>OTHERS and PAST<>FUTURE 17
    • 1.8 Adding predicates to the I → AM cycle 19
    • 1.9 Stem concepts of human cultural self-organization 21
    • 2.1 Typology of notions of culture34
    • 2.2 Contrast between the use of culture as a “container” (A) and as a process of relating (B) 40
    • 2.3 Dynamics of interior and exterior loops in meaning construction 41
    • 2.4 Boundaries on the beach 44
    • 2.5 A monument to a soldier in Hangzhou, China 46
    • 2.6 The dramatic nature of the semiosphere 47
    • 3.1 From symmetry to asymmetry in relationships 52
    • 3.2 The use of protective gloves in distancing the closeness of danger 52
    • 3.3 The Organon Model modified: Generalization in irreversible time 54
    • 3.4 Generalization and hypergeneralization 57
    • 4.1 Cultural meanings on the skin: A permanent tattoo (on the border of private and public access) 64
    • 4.2 Quadratic unity of INSIDE<>OUTSIDE and PAST<>FUTURE 66
    • 4.3 Mutual feed-forward relations of internalization and externalization 70
    • 4.4 Laminal model of internalization/externalization as double transformation 71
    • 5.1 Triangles that are illusions 87
    • 5.2Moving through and passing by: interpreting on the move 88
    • 5.3 C. S. Peirce's triangle 89
    • 5.4 The unity of icon, index, and symbol 91
    • 5.5 Combination of representational sign types 93
    • 5.6 Segregation of a minority in public 94
    • 5.7 Symbolic segregation of smokers on an outdoor railway platform 95
    • 5.8 How warning messages work for triggering resistance 96
    • 5.9 The oppositional characters in tobacco 97
    • 5.10 Cigars as belonging to dessert in a café menu 97
    • 6.1 An intransitive hierarchy with a rupture point 111
    • 6.2 The core of the dynamic semiotic perspective: Duality of the act 116
    • 6.3 The emerged sign with functional longevity (feed-forward to the future) 117
    • 6.4 Sign hierarchy as an inhibitory sign (IN) emerges and blocks the meaning (S) 118
    • 6.5 Extension of the sign hierarchy to include the Inhibitor of the Inhibitor and Demolishing signs (D-signs: “All this is nonsense!”) 119
    • 6.6 Emergence of a fixed dominant regulatory (FDR) sign 122
    • 6.7 Generalization of signs: How affect operates 126
    • 6.8 The making of silence through SWIB at the level of hyper-generalized meaning field (Level 4) 127
    • 6.9 Escalating through SWIB at Level 3: Flowing vague utterances 128
    • 6.10 The function of SWIBs at Level 2: Socially expanding “rational” talk 129
    • 6.11 The SWIB at Level 1 130
    • 7.1 From dead birds into food: In labels we trust 137
    • 7.2 Esteemed citizens of Haarlem following the “Tulip Promises”. Wagon of Fools by Hendrik Gerritsz Pot, 1637. 140
    • 7.3 The handle and its attachment 143
    • 7.4 Nineteenth-century cannibalistic ritual forks from Fiji (Berlin, Dahlem Museum) 145
    • 7.5 A recycling system: Preparing for the “second coming” of objects 147
    • 7.6 The structure of the object (Gegenstand)154
    • 7.7 The dynamics of the A<>non-A meaning system: Eternal movement between “the CLEAN” and “the DIRTY” 162
    • 7.8 Francisco Goya's Procesión de disciplinantes (1816–19) 170
    • 8.1 The Japanese rock garden (Ryoanji Temple, Kyoto) 183
    • 8.2 A family burial place in La Recolleta, Buenos Aires 188
    • 8.3 A tombstone of a Yugoslav family in Vienna Zentralfriedhof191
    • 8.4 Ending the line 193
    • 8.5 The promises of a church, and a coconut palm 194
    • 8.6 The top of a Dorian column (Paestum, Salerno) 195
    • 8.7 The Ionian column uses the principle of the extension of the line through spiral endings (from Lipps, 1891, p. 84) 195
    • 8.8 Caryatids supporting a house entrance in Vienna 196
    • 8.9 A ruin of a temple (Paestum). Note the Dorian columns 198
    • 8.10 Gedächtniskirche in Berlin—a purposeful ruin 199
    • 8.11 Mapping places on the coordination of two polar infinities 201
    • 9.1 Where innovation begins: On the border 206
    • 9.2 Where collective culture works 216
    • 9.3 Eva Gonzalez, La Chignon (1865–1870) 222
    • 9.4 When some hair is hidden, other hair acquires communicative relevance 223
    • 9.5 A usual event in the street: A woman pulling down her dress 225
    • 10.1 Fashion that breaks old norms: Underwear emerging from the undergrounds of intimacy 231
    • 10.2 Regular fashion—“ruined jeans” 234
    • 10.3 A “big” tension: Temptation of St Anthony (Felicien Rops, 1878) 235
    • 10.4 The façade of the Basilica di Santa Croce, Lecce 239
    • 10.5 Semiotic homogenization (schematization) and heterogenization (pleromatization) 240
    • 10.6 Ornamented entrance to the Cathedral of Metz, France 241
    • 10.7 Impact ranges of schematic and pleromatic signs 242
    • 10.8 Interdependence of schematization and pleromatization 244
    • 10.9 A model of dialectical synthesis 250
    • 7.1 Constructive extension of affordances 146


    This book is not meant to persuade anybody to become converted to the new direction within psychology—cultural psychology. One role I have always resisted—and viewed with a grain of irony—is the effort of many social scientists of our time to write popular books that are intended to persuade that their viewpoint is to be accepted by interested audiences. Instead, this book is a tool for developing new ways of viewing the phenomenon—all subsumed under the generic label culture. As readers will almost immediately discover, culture cannot be defined in less than in around 200 ways. Why, then, create a new discipline at the borderlines of psychology and that ephemeral notion of culture?

    A number of reasons for such an undertaking can be mentioned. Globalization brings together human beings who at first glance seem to understand one another—and, at a second, blatantly fail to do so. New closeness leads to new misunderstandings—and, at times, to new conflicts. Culture becomes an easy label for explaining such new developments. After my neighbor has passed by me, failing to greet me, I feel better if I can say to myself “it is in her culture that greeting your neighbor is not accepted,” rather than assume that she is afraid of the “evil eye” I might cast upon her.

    Cultural psychology has become increasingly popular in the past two decades. There are a number of trends in contemporary cultural psychology. I do not try to overview these here—they are represented elsewhere (Valsiner, 2012b, and in the journal Culture & Psychology). In this book I merely make an effort to outline the realm of interests of one version of that new direction, cultural psychology of semiotic dynamics. It is a sequel to my 2007 book Culture in Minds and Societies (New Delhi: Sage). There is a new feature in the present book—an enhanced use of visual and literary, often metaphoric, messages to elaborate my primarily abstract theoretical ideas. Behind the myriad of examples is a structure of theoretical notions that is slowly taking its form, as the discussion wanders along.

    A number of friends and colleagues have been generously helpful in the rather long process of my writing this book. Kenneth R. Cabell took great care of giving me substantive feedback on each and every chapter, which was most helpful. Pina Marsico and Raffaele DeLuca Picione found an Italian publisher and undertook the translation of some parts of the manuscript while I was frantically trying to write other parts. The enthusiastic interest by student groups in Salvador, Bahia, and Brasilia, where some of the drafts of the chapters were discussed in seminars, kept up my motivation to plough on with my writing. I am deeply indebted to all.

    The book is also a marker of a transition in the author's academic life course. After 32 years of living in North America, I am in the process of moving back to Europe, with all the positive learning that the New World has given me. This includes years of creative discussions with my colleagues, first in North Carolina (Robert Cairns and Gilbert Gottlieb) and for the last 17 years at Clark University in Massachusetts. Among my colleagues at Clark, Nick Thompson, Michael Bamberg, and the intellectually ever-young Roger Bibace deserve my special gratitude. They made it possible for me to grow during the “Clark years,” while, unfortunately, witnessing the gradual erosion of a historically major scholarly institution. Clark University was in the past—and still is—a remarkable context of higher education where all levels of scholarship, from a freshman undergraduate to an emeritus professor, can productively intermingle. My students over the years—undergraduate and graduate—have taught me much, and have found their own ways in academia. The work of many of them is relevant to this book. The constant coming and going of international visitors to work with me and my students at Clark created the unique intellectual atmosphere of the “Kitchen seminars,” where good-quality coffee and the mutual respect of participants led to a variety of new ideas, including those presented in this book. My role in these seminars was to pour out the coffee and to listen. Listening has the advantage of giving us time to contemplate. It is only later, in this (and other) books, where my silence in interaction is broken—hopefully, with a bit of substance in the results.

    I hope to bring back to Europe some of my acquired restless eagerness, which is known to characterize the ways of being in the Americas, and to unite that with the European tradition of intellectual depth. Special gratitude here goes to the Danish Ministry of Science and Technology, and to Aalborg University, where the new Niels Bohr Professorship Centre that we are establishing promises to open new horizons for cultural psychology's international visibility. Behind that success is the quiet and persistent effort by my colleagues in Aalborg—Brady Wagoner and Christian Jantzen—whose actions at the decisive moment made this all possible. I hope that the new Centre will play a catalyzing role for the many cultural-historical researchers I have met and befriended in Denmark in general. Denmark—at the border zone of Scandinavia and Central Europe—has since Søren Kierkegaard retained its fierce feeling of autonomy and high educational standards. My semiotic perspective should fit well with the cultural phenomenological perspectives that are well developed in Denmark. It will, hopefully, become a fruitful basis for the future growth of ideas—beyond this book. The book—as it leaves its author and enters the realm of readability anywhere in the world—remains an effort to make sense of some very general aspects of our being human.

    Chapel Hill, NC; Worcester, MA;

    Aalborg, Denmark

    August 2013

    Jaan Valsiner

  • Epilogue: Cultural Psychology as a Science of Universality of Culture

    Real human beings experience the pains and pleasures of birth, the hardships of living, and the sorrows of death. And they survive. And have survived, psychologically, for centuries before psychology as science came into existence. At these times they had not yet invented the notions of “trauma” and “therapy”—and the obligation to cure the former by the latter. Starting from the talk about trauma in the mid-19th-century train rides in America, the discourse about its dangers for the passengers and the need to prevent it, have been around. In the first airplanes, nurses were brought on board to treat the needs of the horrified passengers—the services of today's flight attendants started from the traumatic feelings of fear. But in all the centuries before that, the psyche has had the misery and luxury of self-healing in the process of surviving.

    What kinds of difference can the new area—cultural psychology—provide? What, in the most general terms, would make the “invitation” in this book different from hundreds of advertising campaigns that all promise to make human beings happy, prosperous, and eternally healthy? Cultural psychology makes no promises of this kind. It would be impossible for any serious science to compete with all these beautiful promises. These promises may be a currency in public discourses, escalated by journalists’ business interests, or at most in the communication between science and society. Science cannot be reduced to these discourses.

    The invitation in this book to a new science—cultural psychology—corrects two of the limitations of the discipline of psychology as it has emerged in the European social contexts over the past two centuries. First, it points to the meaningful nature of human life that is to be studied as such, if psychology were to be relevant for human beings. My focus in this book is personological, starting largely from the work of William Stern. It is Stern who charted out cultural psychology as the study of the psyche in its values-based acting in objective cultural domains (Stern, 1935, p. 39). The relation between structural forms (Strukturformungen) of the psyche and the objective cultural settings was to be the focus of that sub-field of general psychology.

    As a discipline that focuses on value-based phenomena, cultural psychology entails a radical break with psychology's empirical traditions. Instead of looking at the lowest levels of the functioning of the psyche, cultural psychology purposefully begins at the highest levels. Hence notions of religion, ritualizations, life philosophies, literature, theatre, music, cinematography, and their uses by people in their everyday lives, constitute the phenomena from which psychology as science begins. Behavior is relevant in psychology only if it is seen as meaningful—it becomes conduct—and as it leads to internalization of further meaningfulness to appear in the future. We started to elaborate human psychology of the meaningfulness of life courses in our collective book Melodies of living (Zittoun et al., 2013), where we synthesized basic ideas of dynamic systems with the centrality of imagination in the human lives over the whole life course. The present book is a continuous effort in the same direction—now from the perspective of an academic field (cultural psychology) rather than that of focus on personal life courses.

    Secondly, cultural psychology is qualitative in its general methodological stance. Quantification is possible—under specific limits—but it does not guarantee knowledge that pertains to the relevant research issues. Quantity is one part—indeed a very small part—of quality. Its subordinate status becomes evident when we find out the borders of applicability of quantification. The use of numbers is not a guarantee of science. The qualitative nature of the new discipline fits with developments in mathematics (Rudolph, 2013) where formal models of qualitative mathematics can become a new horizon for the social sciences.

    Thirdly, cultural psychology accepts the inevitable uniqueness of psychological phenomena. This is yet another reason why cultural psychology re-vitalizes the qualitative focus in psychology—it is the inevitable location of each and every human experience within the irreversible flow of time. The psyche is a tool for pre-adaptation of the living human being for the always partially indeterminate futures. Thus, part of the phenomena that psychology deals with are located in the present, part are becoming events of the past, yet all the time there is the impending future that is luring ahead. Phenomena of such kind are unique—they are emerging—which means that their frequency is constantly moving from 0 (not yet occurred) to 1 (now occurred). And the frequency “1” never becomes bigger—never “2” or beyond — because each new emergence is necessarily unique. Recognition of the similarities in the group of unique phenomena is possible on the basis of similarity, not sameness (Sovran, 1992).1

    How can a generalizing science deal with uniqueness? Since 2004 (Molenaar, 2004, 2007; Salvatore and Valsiner, 2010), psychology has been enriched by the notion of idiographic science. At first glance, if seen within the framework of Quetelet's “social physics” and its sequels, this label may seem to us as a contradiction in terms—if idiographic (= unique) nature of phenomena are of interest, there can be no generalization. The position stemming from the constructionist cultural psychology of semiotic dynamics is precisely the opposite—because of such uniqueness, generalization is possible. However, it is not generalization from the given phenomenon to a hypothetical “typical” form (e.g. “the average X”), but to the principles that govern the emergence of ever new uniqueness.

    Generalization from single cases to generic processes that make these cases possible has a time-honored tradition in science. Astrophysical generalizations are based on unique cases of self-organizing systems: galaxies, planetary systems, and single planets or comets. General biological principles, such as those of immunology (where one needs to explain the emergence of immunity towards ever-new viruses), have to be applicable to each and every, known or not-yet-known, case. Explaining the role of Ivan Pavlov's findings in physiology to the lay audiences of his time (1920s), Lev Vygotsky emphasized that Pavlov's experimental work with (a few) dogs was not about dogs as a species, nor about their salivation, nor about a particular dog, but:

    In the case of the dog he studied not the dog, but the animal in general, in salivation—the reflex in general, i.e. in this animal and in this function he pointed out what it has in common with all similar functions. That is why his conclusions pertain to not only all animals, but to all biology. (Vygotsky, 1926/1982, p. 404)

    Our invitation of the reader to cultural psychology is in line with Vygotsky's claim. Any unique cultural phenomenon carries within it general principles of semiotic mediation that makes it possible. All phenomena of “local culture” (Geertz, 1983) are thus made possible by general processes of semiosis. These processes are oriented towards variability amplification (Maruyama, 1963), and thus result in ever more new, “local,” versions of cultural phenomena.

    Fourthly, culture is not a thing, but a process of semiotic mediation. Culture, when viewed as the process of the semiotic mediation of human living, is thus a tool for the flexibility of the human psyche to encounter a wide variety of settings. Some of these are oriented towards the construction of something new, reaching new frontiers of understanding and being. Others lead to destruction. Human history is filled with calamities—wars devastate what has been constructed in peacetime, epidemics rage through the places where human beings live, and famines destroy the crops. Interestingly, our regular accounts of human psychology remain focused on the positive side of human existence. Psychologists are more likely to talk and write about the role of playground environments in children's cognitive and social development than those of war experiences, floods, or earthquakes. Or if they deal with the latter, it is the traumatic aspect (e.g. post-traumatic stress) rather than the human capacity to work out new forms of resilience to cope with the calamities in the future.

    The oversight of the horrible and the preference for the positive in psychological accounts may in itself be a coping strategy with the former. Why dwell upon the miserable past and try to endlessly explain it—this bringing it into the present? It is better to distance ourselves from it, and move on to create something positive. In practical life this may be a usual way of being. Yet, for the fullness of science, psychology needs to be clear of the functioning of the “dark side” of human existence—the readiness to kill, obedience to orders to act against fellow human beings, and readiness to plan and create tools for such acts of destruction. I have yet to find a study in psychology of people who make arms, be those rifles, bayonets, tanks, drones or landmines—some manufactured even in the form of children's toys. What kind of meaning would a worker in such “toy factory” construct for his/her feelings about such a job? By and large, public worries about arms trafficking are not represented equally to the social discourses on drug trafficking.

    In addition to our—researchers'—own anxieties of dealing with these “shadow sides” of the human psyche, we also have a problem of access to the humanly central phenomena as these are on the border of life and death. A psychologist has no place on a battlefield, interviewing soldiers who might be killed at the next moment, or even giving out questionnaires to fill out in between battles. The frontline is a dangerous place, both to the fighters and the psychologists. They might be killed, or they might find out something that the commanders do not like.

    Furthermore, there is no direct access for the psychologist to phenomena that occurred in the past. There is no way to send a psychologist to study the impact of the guillotine on the well-being of the political opponents of the current powerholders who were subjected to the rapid blade of that cultural instrument of “humane2” execution. Neither would such a researcher be left near the ritualized act of a political kind—and possibly be arrested as a “spy”. All evidence of the psychological events in the past comes through culturally mediated signs. Psychology is in this sense close to a number of neighbouring disciplines—such as archaeology or history—of having to make inferences from sign-mediated materials that existed in reality in the past, but not anymore. As such, psychology's data are signs, not facts. This realization goes back in psychology to the mid-19th century and finds its predecessor in Hermann Lotze's idea of local signs (Lokalzeichen—Valsiner, 2012).

    This feature of psychological research—centered on data as signs—provides us with new access to phenomena. Chronicle and fiction writers, portrait and landscape painters, who all have left surviving records, provide us with culturally encoded evidence that can be usable in a psychological investigation. The evidence from these literary sources needs to be considered as equal to the direct recording of evidence from living research participants (Brinkmann, 2009). A psychologist who gathers data with a questionnaire or interview today will be analyzing a historical record—now on one's computer screen—that is, in principle, similar to the analysis of the sayings or actions of a fictional character in a novel. Anna Karenina's psyche—completely created by Leo Tolstoy (Eco, 2009; Valsiner, 2009)—is as real as that of Anna Ivanova's, who may live next door to a psychologist. A novelist's description of the life in the given time and the social environments can be superior to efforts to reconstruct that from soulless historical records (e.g. Heider, 1959, on Marcel Proust). It is not surprising that the ways of thinking of literary scholars—Mikhail Bakhtin and Lev Vygotsky are good examples—becomes easily transferred to theory building in psychology. Cultural psychology is closely tied to semiotics—as a science of signs and their functions. Thus, the objects of investigation form a unified universe—the semiosphere.

    Considering all psychological data as fictions—as their nature as historical records starts from the moment of their derivation—does not make the data flawed in any sense. Fictions are important in human lives—human language is the primary semiotic source in our everyday lives to create non-existing objects3 that play very central roles in our lives. All our generic notions—Self, patriotism, love, justice, etc.—are hyper-generalized signs of field-like kind. While ontologically these are non-existing objects, functionally they are signs that regulate our ongoing lives in dramatic ways that sometimes lead to their end. Monuments to perished war heroes or martyrs of any kind are semiotic markers of events of the loss of real life for the sake of non-existing objects.

    We create culture, and through it, ourselves. The person—a socially emerged subjective actor within the socially structured life-field—is in constant motion towards horizons that will always stay beyond reach. Yet in that movement—from birth through maturity to death—the person creates his/her meaningful life course. To make sense how that happens is the task for the new field of cultural psychology. No persuasion is needed to allow the reader to understand a discipline that has been involved in self-searching (as if it is always seen as being “in crisis”—Valsiner, 2012, Chapter 8). Cultural psychology—an “up and coming disicipline” in the 1990s (Cole, 1996)—is by the 21st century well established to provide new insights into the full complexity of human life.

    1The practice of treating similarity as if it were sameness is the basis of the static viewpoint where categories of events are established by recognition of their similarity, united into a category, and subsequently treated as if these were each a representative of the homogeneous class. Heterogeneity of classes (where similarity prevails) becomes substituted by their homogeneity, fuzzy sets become treated as crisp ones, and time is considered only a dimension within which these events are detected.

    2At the introduction of the guillotine, this new technology of execution was presumed to be more “humane” than the hand-held sword of the human executioner (Smith, 2003). The use of the notion of humanity in the business of killing—in wars or peacetime—is a remarkable cultural meaning construction by itself.

    3In the sense of Alexius Meinong (1853–1920) of the “Graz School” of psychology. Meinong's distinction between existing and non-existing objects (that subsist, e.g. “golden mountain”) is an ontological pre-condition for looking at psychological regulation in terms of sign hierarchies. Signs that present the subsisting non-existing objects in these hierarchies make the psyche capable of transcending the limits of the here-and-now setting in the meaning-making process.


    Abbey, E. (2006). Triadic frames for ambivalent experience. Estudios de Psicologia, 27, 1, 33–40.
    Abbey, E. (2012). Ambivalence and its transformation. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 989–997). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Abbey, E., and Diriwächter, R. (Eds.) (2008). Innovating genesis: Microgenesis and the constructive mind in action. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Abbey, E., and Surgan, S. (Eds.) (2012). Emerging methods in psychology. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Adams, G., and Dzokoto, V. A. (2007). Genital-shrinking panic in Ghana. Culture & Psychology, 13, 1, 83–104.
    Adams, G., and Markus, H. R. (2001). Culture as patterns: An alternative approach to the problem of reification. Culture & Psychology, 7, 3, 283–296.
    Allaire, Y., and Firsirotu, M. E. (1984). Theories of organizational culture. Organization Studies, 5, 3, 193–226.
    Andriani, C. M., and Manning, J. R. (2010). “Negotiating with the dead”: On the past of Auschwitz and the present of Oswiecim. Psychology & Society, 3, 1, 42–58.
    Arro, G. (2013). Peeking into personality test answers: Inter- and intraindividual variety in item interpretations. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 47, 56–76.
    Bachelard, G. (2002). The formation of the scientific mind. Manchester: Clinamen Press [original in 1938].
    Baldwin, J. M. (1895). Mental development in the child and the race. New York: Macmillan.
    Baldwin, J. M. (1908). Thought and things (Vol. 2). London: George Allen & Co.
    Baldwin, J. M. (1930). James Mark Baldwin. In C.Murchison (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 1, pp. 1–30). New York: Russell & Russell.
    Bang, J. (2009a). Nothingness and the human Umwelt: A cultural–ecological approach to meaning. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 43, 374–392.
    Bang, J. (2009b). Synthetic phenomena and dynamic methodologies. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 567–594). New York: Springer.
    Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological psychology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Barker, R. G., and Gump, P. (1963). Big school, small school. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Barker, R. G., and Schoggen, P. (1973). Qualities of community life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Barker, R. G., and Wright, H. F. (1955). Midwest and its children. New York: Harper & Row.
    Barthes, R. (1994). The kitchen of meaning. In R.Barthes, The semiotic challenge (pp. 157–159). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Bastide, R. (2003). Social origins of religion. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Beckstead, Z. (2012). Crossing thresholds: Movement as a means of transformation. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 710–729). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bekhterev, V. M. (1903). Vnushenie I ego rol' v sotsial'noi zizni [Suggestion and its role in social life]. St Peterburg: K. L. Rikker [English translation 1998 by Transaction, New Brunswick, NJ].
    Benedict, R. (1959). Patterns of culture. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin [original in 1934].
    Bergman, I. (2007). The magic lantern: An autobiography. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Bergson, H. (1911). Creative evolution. New York: Henry Holt.
    Berns, G. S., Chappelow, J., Zink, C., Pagnoni, G., Martin-Skurski, M., and Richards, J. (2005). Neurobiological correlates of social conformity and independence during mental rotation. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 245–253.
    Bishnoi, R. S. (1992). A blueprint for environment: Conservation as creed. Hra Dun, India: Surya Publication.
    Boesch, C. (2012). From material to symbolic cultures. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 677–694). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Boesch, E. E. (1991). Symbolic action theory. New York: Springer.
    Branco, A. U., and Valsiner, J. (1997). Changing methodologies: A co-constructivist study of goal orientations in social interactions. Psychology and Developing Societies, 9, 1, 35–64.
    Braudel, F. (1967). Structure of everyday life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Brinkmann, S. (2004). The topography of moral ecology. Theory & Psychology, 14, 1, 57–80.
    Brinkmann, S. (2006). Questioning constructionism: Toward an ethics of finitude. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46, 1, 92–111.
    Brinkmann, S. (2008a). Comte and Houellebecq: Towards a radical phenomenology of behavior. In K.Nielsen, S.Brinkmann, C.Elmholdt, L.Tanggaard, P.Musaeus, and G.Kraft (Eds.), A qualitative stance: Essays in honor of Steinar Kvale (pp. 177–186). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.
    Brinkmann, S. (2008b). Changing psychologies in the transition from industrial society to consumer society. History of the Human Sciences, 21, 2, 85–110.
    Brinkmann, S. (2009). Literature as qualitative inquiry: The novelist as a researcher. Qualitative Inquiry, 15, 8, 1376–1394.
    Brinkmann, S. (2011). Towards an expansive hybrid psychology: Integrating theories of the mediated mind. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 45, 1–20.
    Brinkmann, S. (2012) The mind as skills and dispositions: On normativity and mediation. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 46, 78–89.
    Brinkmann, S. and Tanggaard, L. (2009). Toward an epistemology of the hand. Studies on Philosophy of Education, DOI 10.1007/s11217-009-9164-0.
    Brown, P. (1988). The body and society: Men, women and sexual renunciation in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Buitelaar, M. (1998). Public baths as private places. In K.Ask and M.Tjomsland (Eds.), Women and Islamization (pp. 103–123). Oxforg: Berg.
    Bühler, K. (1934/1965). Sprachtheorie. Jena-Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.
    Bühler, K. (1951). On thought connections. In D.Rapaport (Ed.), Organization and pathology of thought (pp. 39–57). New York: Columbia University Press [originally published in German in 1908].
    Bühler, K. (1990). Theory of language: The representational function of language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Cabell, K. R., and Valsiner, J. (2012). Affective hypergeneralization: Learninng from psychoanalysis. In S.Salvatore and T.Zittoun (Eds.), Cultural psychology and psychoanalysis: Pathways to synthesis (pp. 87–113). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Cabell, K. R., and Valsiner, J. (Eds.) (2013). The catalyzing mind. New York: Springer.
    Chang, R. S. (Ed.) (2009). Relating with environment: A new look at Umwelt. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Chaudhary, N. (2012). Affective networks: The social terrain of a complex culture. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 901–916). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Clark, G. (1989). Money, sex and cooking: Manipulation of the paid/unpaid boundary by Asante market women. In H. J.Rutz and B. S.Orlove (Eds.), The social ecology of consumption (pp. 323–348). New York: University Presses of America.
    Clark, G. (1994). Onions are my husband: Survival and accumulation by West African market women. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Clegg, J. (2009). Considering the foundations for a holistic empirical psychology. In J.Clegg (Ed.), The observation of human systems (pp. 167–175). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Clegg, J. (2012). Self-observation in the social sciences. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Cohn, B. S. (1996). Colonialism and its forms of knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Cole, M. (1995). Culture and cognitive development: From cross-cultural research to creating systems of cultural mediation. Culture & Psychology, 1, 25–54.
    Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Collins, H. (2004). Gravity's shadow: The search for gravitational waves. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Collins, H. (2010). Gravity's ghost: Scientific discovery in the twenty-first century. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Corbin, A. (1994). The lure of the sea. London: Penguin Books.
    Corbin, A. (1998). Village bells: Sound and meaning in the 19th-century French countryside. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Cunha, C. A., Gonçalves, M., and Valsiner, J. (2012). Transforming self-narratives in psychotherapy: Looking at different forms of ambivalence in the change process. In R. A.Jones and M.Morioka (Eds.), Jungian and dialogical self-perspectives (pp. 43–66). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Cunha, H. P. (1989). Woman between mirrors. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Danet, B. (1980). ‘Baby’ or ‘fetus’?: Language and the construction of reality in a manslaughter trial. Semiotica, 32, 3–4, 187–219.
    Davis, K., and Nencel, L. (2011). Border skirmishes and the question of belonging: An autoethnographic account of everyday exclusion in multicultural society. Ethnicities, 11, 4, 467–488.
    Demmer, U. (1997). Voices in the forest: The field of gathering among the Jenu Kurumba. In P.Hockings (Ed.), Blue Mountains revisited: Cultural studies on the Nilgiri Hills (pp. 164–178). Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Deutsch, H. (1938). Folie a deux. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 7, 307–318.
    Dimaggio, P., and Markus, H. R. (2010). Culture and social psychology: Converging perspectives. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 347–352.
    Diriwächter, R. (2009). Idiographic microgenesis: Re-visiting the experimental tradition of Aktualgenese. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 319–352). New York: Springer.
    Diriwächter, R. (2012) Völkerpsychologie. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 43–57). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Dorazio-Migliore, M., Migliore, S., and Anderson, J. (2005). Crafting a praxis-oriented culture concept in the health disciplines: Conundrums and possibilities. Health, 9, 3, 339–360.
    Douglas, M. (1984). Purity and danger: An analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo. London: ARK Paperbacks.
    Doumato, E. A. (2000). Getting God's ear: Women, Islam and healing in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Driesch, H. (1925). The crisis in psychology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Dumont, L. (1990). Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications (
    revised edition
    ). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Eayrs, M. A. (1993). Time, trust, hazard: Hairdressers' symbolic roles. Symbolic Interaction, 16, 1, 19–37.
    Eck, D. L. (1982). Ganga: The goddess in Hindu sacred geography. In J. S.Hawley and D. M.Wulff (Eds.), The divine consort: Radha and the goddesses of India (pp. 166–183). Berkeley, CA: Graduate Theological Union.
    Eckstein, H. (1996). Culture as a foundation concept for the social sciences. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 8, 4, 471–497.
    Eco, U. (2009). On the ontology of fictional characters. Sign System Studies, 37, 1, 82–96.
    Ehrenfels, C. von (1890/1967). Über Gestaltqualitäten. In F.Weinhandl (Ed.), Gestalthaftes sehen: Ergebnisse und aufgaben der Morphologie (pp. 11–43). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft [originally in Vierterjahreschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie, 14, 242–292].
    Eliade, M. (1958). Rites and symbols of initiation. London: Harvill Press.
    Eliade, M. (1993). Bengal nights. New Delhi: Rupa & Co.
    Ericsson, K. A., and Simon, H. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data (
    2nd edition
    ). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Fadlalla, A. H. (2013). Vulnerability unveiled: Lubna's pants and humanitarian visibility on the verge of Sudan's seccession. In E. P.Renne (Ed.), Veiling in Africa (pp. 205–223). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Falmagne, R. J. (2006). The dialectic of the particular and the general. International Journal of Critical Psychology, 17, 367–384.
    Flaccus, L. W. (1906). Remarks on the psychology of clothes. Pedagogical Seminary, 13, 61–83.
    Foucault, M. (1980). History of sexuality (Vol. 1). New York: Vintage Books.
    Fowler, M. (2009). Finding Cage at Ryoan-ji through re-modelling of “Variations II”. Perspectives of New Music, 47, 1, 174–192.
    Freeman, M. (2011) Toward poetic science. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 45, 389–396.
    Freud, S. (1911). Die Traumbedeutung. Leipzig: Franz Deuticke.
    Freud, S. (1978). The interpretation of dreams. New York: Modern Library.
    Fuhrer, U. (2004). Cultivating minds. London: Routledge.
    Geary, P. (1986). Sacred commodities: The circulation of mediaeval relics. In A.Appadurai (Ed.), The social life of things (pp. 169–191). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Geary, P. (1994). Living with the dead in the middle ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, C. (1983). Local knowledge. New York: Basic Books.
    Gellner, E. (1992). Postmodernism, reason, and religion. London: Routledge.
    Georgiou, D., and Carspecken, P. (2002). Critical ethnography and ecological psychology: Conceptual and empirical explorations of a synthesis. Qualitative Inquiry, 8, 6, 688–706.
    Gigerenzer, G. (2007). Gut feelings. London: Viking.
    Gigerenzer, G., Swijtink, Z., Porter, T., Daston, L., Beatty, J., and Krüger, L. (1989). The empire of chance: How probability changed science and everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gillespie, A. (2006). Becoming other: From social interaction to self-reflection. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishers.
    Glaveanu, V.-P., Gillespie, A., and Valsiner, J. (Eds.) (2014). Outside the box: Rethinking creativity from the perspective of cultural psychology. London: Routledge.
    Godbeer, R. (1995). Chaste and unchaste covenants: Witchcraft and sex in early modern culture. In P.Benes (Ed.), Wonders of the invisible world: 1600–1900 (pp. 53–72). The Dublin Seminars for New England folklife, Annual Proceedings 1992. Boston, MA: Boston University.
    Godbeer, R. (2002). Sexual revolution in early America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Godelier, M. (2011a). What is a sexual act?Anthropological Theory, 3, 2, 179–198.
    Godelier, M. (2011b). The metamorphosis of kinship. London: Verso.
    Goldgar, A. (2007). Tulipmania: Money, honor, and knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    González-Ruibal, A. (2012). Archaeology and the study of material culture. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 132–162). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Graumann, C.-F. (1959). Aktualgenese. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie, 6, 3, 410–448.
    Grima, B. (1991). The role of suffering in women's performance of Paxto. In A.Appadurai, F. J.Korom, and M. A.Mills (Eds.), Gender, genre and power in South Asian expressive traditions (pp. 78–101). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Grosz, G. (1998). Georg Grosz: An autobiography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Guimarães, D. S. (2013). Self and dialogical multiplication. Interacçoes, 24, 214–242.
    Habermas, T. (1996). Geliebte objekte: Symbole und instrumente der identitätsbildung. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    Hadamard, J. (1954). An essay on the psychology of invention in the mathematical field. New York: Dover.
    Hagen, J. (2009). Architecture: Urban planning, and political authority in Ludwig I's Munich. Journal of Urban History, 35, 4, 459–485.
    Hall, G. S. (1897). A study of fears. American Journal of Psychology, 8, 147–249.
    Halliday, M. A. K. (1976). Anti-languages. American Anthropologist, 78, 570–584.
    Hamburger, L., and Hamburger, J. (1991). Contemplating adultery: The secret life of a Victorian woman. New York: Fawcett Colombine.
    Hardgrave, R. L. (1969). The Nadars of Tamilnad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Harré, R. (2012). Positioning theory: Moral dimensions of socio-cultural psychology. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 191–206). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hegland, M. E. (1998). Flagellation and fundamentalism: (Trans)forming meaning, American Ethnologist, 25, 2, 240–266.
    Heider, F. (1959). The description of the psychological environment in the work of Marcel Proust. In F.Heider, On perception, event structure, and psychological environment (pp. 85–107). New York: International Universities Press.
    Heinrich, J., Heine, S. J., and Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61–135.
    Hentschel, K. (1993). Einstein's attitude towards experiments: Testing relativity theory 1907–1927, Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 23, 4, 593–624.
    Herbst, D. P. (1995). What happens when we make a distinction: An elementary introduction to co-genetic logic. In T.Kindermann and J.Valsiner (Eds.), Development of person–context relations (pp. 67–79). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Herdt, G. (1980). Semen depletion and the sense of maleness. Ethnopsychiatrica, 3, 79–116.
    Hermans, H. (2001). The dialogical self: Toward a theory of personal and cultural positioning. Culture and Psychology, 7, 3, 243–281.
    Hermans, H., and Gieser, T. (Eds.) (2012) Handbook of dialogical self theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hermans, H., and Hermans-Konopka, A. (2010). Dialogical self theory: Positioning and counter-positioning in a globalizing world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hermans, H., and Kempen, H. (1993). The dialogical self: Meaning in movement. New York: Academic Press.
    Hitchins, R. (2006). Expertise and inability: Cultured materials and the reason of some retreating lawns in London. Journal of Material Culture, 11, 3, 364–381.
    Hoffmeyer, J. (1998). Semiotic aspects of biology: Biosemiotics. In R.Posner, K.Robering, and T. A.Sebeok (Eds.), Semiotik (pp. 2643–2666). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    Holton, G. (1998). The advancement of science, and its burdens. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2010). Cultivating questions for a sociology of gardens. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 39, 5, 498–516.
    Hori, G. V. S. (1994). Teaching and learning in the Rinzai Zen monastery. Journal of Japanese Studies, 20, 1, 5–35.
    Horney, K. (1980). The adolescent diaries. New York: Basic Books.
    Hsu, M.-T., Kahn, D. L., and Hsu, M. (2003). A single leaf orchid: Meaning of a husband's death for Taiwanese widows. Ethos, 30, 4, 306–326.
    Humphrey, G. (1951). Thinking. London: Methuen.
    Iccheiser, G. (1943). Ideology of success and the dilemma of education. Ethics, 53, 2, 137–141.
    Ikegami, E. (2005). Bonds of civility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ilechukwu, S. T. C. (1992). Magical penis loss in Nigeria: Report of a recent epidemic of a Koro-like syndrome. Transcultural Psychiatry, 29, 91–108.
    Ingold, T. (1993). The temporality of the landscape. World Archaeology, 25, 2, 152–174.
    Ingold, T. (2004). Culture on the ground: The world perceived through the feet. Journal of Material Culture, 9, 3, 315–340.
    Ingold, T. (2011). Being alive: Essays on movement, knowledge and description. London: Routledge.
    Innis, R. E. (1983). The semiotic relevance of Bühler's Sprachtheorie. In T.Borbé (Ed.), Semiotics unfolding (Vol. 1, pp. 143–149). Berlin: Mouton.
    Innis, R. E. (1988). The thread of subjectivity: Philosophical remarks on Bühler's language theory. In A.Eschbach (Ed.), Karl Bühler's theory of language (pp. 77–106). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Innis, R. E. (2012). Meaningful connections: Semiotics, cultural psychology and the forms of sense. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 255–276). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Jahn, H. F. (1995). Patriotic culture in Russia during World War I. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Jahoda, G. (1982). Psychology and anthropology: A psychological perspective. London: Academic Press.
    Jahoda, G. (1993a). Crossroads between culture and mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Jahoda, G. (1993b). The color of a chameleon: Perspectives on concepts of “culture”. Cultural Dynamics, 6, 3, 277–287.
    Jahoda, G. (1995). The ancestry of a model. Culture & Psychology, 1, 11–24.
    Jahoda, G. (2012a). Culture and psychology: Words and ideas in history. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 25–42). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Jahoda, G. (2012b). Critical reflections on some recent definitions of “culture”. Culture & Psychology, 18, 3, 289–303.
    James, W. (1950). Foundations of psychology. New York: Dover.
    Janet, P. (1919). Les medications psychologiques. Paris: Felix Alcan.
    Janet, P. (1921). Fear of action. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 16, 1, 150–160.
    Janet, P. (1928). Fear of action as an essential element in the sentiment of melancholia. In M.Reymert (Ed.), Feelings and emotions: The Wittenberg Symposium (pp. 297–300), Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
    Järvinen, I.-R. (1999). Cemetery sacrilege and folk conceptions of God and punishment in Russian Karelia. In ÜValk (Ed.), Studies in folklore and religion (Vol. 2, pp. 121–130). Tartu: Tartu University Press.
    Johnson, P. (2006). Unravelling Foucault's ‘different spaces’. History of the Human Sciences, 19, 4, 75–90.
    Josephs, I. E., and Valsiner, J. (1998). How does autodialogue work? Miracles of meaning maintenance and circumvention strategies. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 1, 68–83.
    Josephs, I. E., Valsiner, J., and Surgan, S. E. (1999). The process of meaning construction. In J.Brandtstätdter and R. M.Lerner (Eds.), Action and self-development (pp. 257–282). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Joyce, J. (1964/1914). A portrait of the artist as a young man. New York: Viking Press.
    Kaelber, L. (1998). Schools of ascetism. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Kandinsky, V. (1926). Punkt und Linie zu Fläche. Bern: Verteli.
    Katriel, T. (1987). “Bexibùdim!”: Ritualized sharing among Israeli children. Language in Society, 16, 305–320.
    Kelley, D. R. (1996). The old cultural history. History of the Human Sciences, 9, 3, 101–126.
    Kharlamov, N. A. (2012). The city as a sign: A developmental-experiential approach to spatial life. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 277–302). New York: Oxford University Press.
    King, W. L. (1970). A comparison of Theravada and Zen Buddhist meditational methods and goals. History of Religions, 9, 4, 304–315.
    Klemm, G. (1843). Allgemeine Kultur-geschichte der Menscheit. Leipzig: Teubner.
    Klemm, G. (1854). Allgemeine Culturwissenschaft. Leipzig: Romberg.
    Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Cultures of science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Kolenda, P. (1981). Caste, cult and hierarchy: Essays on the culture of India. Meerut: Folklore Institute.
    Komatsu, K. (2010). Emergence of young children' presentational self in daily conversations and its semiotic foundation. Human Development, 53, 208–228.
    Kopytoff, I. (1986). The cultural biography of things: Commoditization as a process. In A.Appadurai (Ed.), The social life of things (pp. 64–91). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Koslofsky, C. (1999). “Pest“–”Gift“–”Ketzerei”: Konkurierende Konzepte von Gemeinschaft und die Verlegung der Friefhöfe. In B.Jussen and C.Koslofsky (Eds.), Kulturelle Reformation (pp. 193–208). GöttiSngen: Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht.
    Koslofsky, C. (2002). From presence to rememberance: The transformation of memory in the German Reformation. In A.Confino and P.Fritzsche (Eds.), The work of memory (pp. 25–38). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Kroeber, A. L. (1949). The concept of culture in science. Journal of General Education, 3, 3, 182–196.
    Kroeber, A. L., and Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kubie, L. S. (1937). The fantasy of dirt. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 6, 388–425.
    Kuczynski, L., and DeMol, J. (2014). Socialization in the family: Transactional and dialectical. In R.Lerner, W.Overton, and P.Moldenaar (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th edition, Vol. 1). Theory and method. New York: Wiley.
    Kumar, P. (2006). Gender and procreative ideologies among the Kolams of Maharashtra. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 40, 3, 279–310.
    Kvale, S. (1976). Facts and dialectics. In J. F.Rychlak (Ed.), Dialectic: Humanistic rationale for behavior and development (pp. 87–100). Basel: Karger.
    Lawrence, J. A., and Valsiner, J. (1993). Conceptual roots of internalization: From transmission to transformation. Human Development, 36, 150–167.
    Lawrence, J. A., and Valsiner, J. (2003). Making personal sense: An account of basic internalization and externalization processes. Theory & Psychology, 13, 6, 723–752.
    Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2005). Reflections on portraiture: A dialogue between art and science. Qualitative Inquiry, 11, 1, 3–15.
    Lea, V. (2004). Mebengokre ritual wailing and flagellation: A performative outlet for emotional self-reflection. Indiana, 21, 113–125.
    LeGoff, J. (1990). The birth of purgatory. Aldershot: Scholar Press.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1983). The raw and the cooked. Introduction to the science of mythology (Vol. 1). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Lévi-Strauss, L. (1985). The view from afar. New York: Basic Books.
    Lewin, K. (1917). Kriegeslandschaft. Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, 12, 440–447.
    Lewin, K. (1927). Gesetz und Experiment in der Psychologie. Symposion, 1, 375–421.
    Liebau, H. (2003). Country priests, catechists, and schoolmasters as cultural, religious, and social middlemen in the context of the Tranquebar Mission. In R. E.Frykenberg (Ed.), Christians and missionaries in India. Grand Rapids, MI: William Eerdman's.
    Lindahl, M. (2011). The vanishing collectable: On economy, honor and the “English garden”. Management & Organization, 6, 2, 209–222.
    Linell, P. (2009). Rethinking language, mind, and the world dialogically. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Lipps, T. (1891). Åstetische Faktoren der Raumanschauung. Hamburg: Leopold Voss.
    Lipps, T. (1897). Zur Psychologie der Suggestion. Leipzig: J. A. Barth.
    Lipps, T. (1906). Die ästetische Betrachtung und die bildende Kunst. Hamburg: Leopold Voss.
    Loewenstein, J. P. (1941). The swastika, its history and meaning. Man, o.s., 41, 38–57.
    Löfgren, O. (1999). On Holiday: A history of vacationing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Longkumer, A. (2011). “Cleanliness is next to godliness”: Religious change, hygiene and the renewal of Heraka villages in Assam. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 45, 2, 189–216.
    Lorino, P. (2014). Charles Sanders Peirce. In J.Helin, T.Hernes, D.Hjorth, and R.Holt (Eds.), The Oxford handbook in business and management. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Lotman, J. (1992). Kul'tura I vzryv. Moscow: Gnozis.
    Lotman, Y. M. (1990). Universe of mind. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Louthan, H. (2005). Breaking images and building bridges: The making of sacred space in early modern Bohemia. In W.Coster and A.Spicer (Eds.), Sacred space in early modern Europe (pp. 282–301). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Luijten, G. (1996). Frills and furbelows: Satires on fashion and pride around 1600. Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, 24, 2/3, 140–160.
    Macdonald, S. (2006). Words in stone? Agency and identity in a Nazi landscape. Journal of Material Culture, 11, 1/2, 105–126.
    Mackay, C. (1852). Memoirs of extraordinary popular delusions and the madness of crowds. London: National Illustrated Library.
    Madsen, O. J., and Brinkmann, S. (2012). Lost in paradise: Paradise Hotel and the showcase of shamelessness. Cultural Studies←→ Critical Methodologies, 12, 5, 459–467.
    Madureira, A. F. (2012). Belonging to gender: Social identities, symbolic boundaries and images. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 582–601). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Maran, T. (2004). Gardens and gardening: An ecosemiotic view. Semiotica, 150, 1/4, 119–133.
    Marglin, F. A. (1985). Types of oppositions in Hindu culture. In J.Carman and F. A.Marglin (Eds.), Purity and auspiciousness in Indian society (pp. 65–83). Leiden: E. J. Brill.
    Marková, I. (1982). Paradigms, thought and language. Chichester: Wiley.
    Markus, H. R., and Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and selves: A cycle of mutual constitution. Psychological Science, 5, 4, 420–430.
    Marsico, G., and Iannaccone, A. (2012). The work of schooling. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 830–868). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Märtsin, M. (2012). On mind, mediation and meaning-making. Culture & Psychology, 18, 3, 425–440.
    Maruyama, M. (1963). The second cybernetics: Deviation-amplifying mutual causal processes. American Scientist, 51, 164–179.
    Maruyama, M. (1988). Citation classic. Current Contents: S&BS, 20, 8, 12.
    Maruyama, M. (1992). Entropy, beauty, and eumorphy. Cybernetica, 35, 3, 195–206.
    Maslow, A. (1960). Resistance to being rubricated. In B.Kaplan and S.Wapner (Eds.), Perspectives in psychological theory: Essays in honor of Heinz Werner (pp. 173–178). New York: International Universities Press.
    Maslow, A. (1966). The psychology of science. South Bend, IN: Gateway Editions.
    McCabe, D. P., and Castel, A. (2008). Seeing is believing: The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning. Cognition, 107, 343–352.
    McGinty, A. M. (2006). Becoming Muslim: Western women's conversion to Islam. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    McGovern, S. (2004). The Ryoan-Ji Zen garden: Textual meanings in topographical form. Visual Communication, 3, 3, 344–359.
    Mead, G. H. (1930). The philosophies of Royce, James and Dewey in their American setting. International Journal of Ethics, 40, 211–231.
    Mernissi, F. (1987). Beyond the veil: Male-female dynamics in modern Muslim society. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Mernissi, F. (1994). Dreams of trespass: Tales of a harem childhood. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
    Miller, D. S. and Rivera, J. D. (2006). The cemetery and the creation of place. Space & Culture, 9, 4, 334–350.
    Miller, G. (2008). Growing pains for fMRI. Science, 320, 1412–1414.
    Moghaddam, F. (2012). The omnicultural imperative. Culture & Psychology, 18, 3, 304–330.
    Molenaar, P. (2004). A manifesto on psychology as idiographic science: Bringing the person back into scientific psychology, this time forever. Measurement, 2, 201–218.
    Molenaar, P. (2007). Psychological methodology will change profoundly due to the necessity to focus on intra-individual variation. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 41, 1, 35–40.
    Molenaar, P., Huizenga, H., and Nesselroade, J. (2002). The relationship between the structure of inter-individual and intra-individual variability. In U.Staudinger and U.Lindenberger (Eds.), Understanding human development (pp. 339–360). Dordrecht: Klüwer.
    Molina, M. E., and del Rio, M. T. (2009) Dynamics of psychotherapy process. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 455–475). New York: Springer.
    Moore, J. H. (1974). The culture concept as ideology. American Ethnologist, 1, 3, 537–549.
    Moore, W. J. (1989). Schrödinger: Life and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Morgan, D. (1996). The enchanment of art: Abstraction and empathy from German Romanticism to Expressionism. Journal of the History of Ideas, 57, 2, 317–341.
    Morgando, M. A. (2007). The semiotics of extraordinary dress. Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, 25, 2, 131–155.
    Mori, N. (2009). The schema approach: A dynamic view on remembering. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 123–140). New York: Springer.
    Mori, N. (2010). Remembering with others: The veracity of an experience in the symbol-formation process. In B.Wagoner (Ed.), Symbolic transformation (pp. 142–158). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
    Morinis, E. A. (1982). Levels of culture in Hinduism: A case study of dream incubation at a Bengali pilgrimage center. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 16, 2, 255–270.
    Morris-Suzuki, T. (1995). The invention and reinvention of “Japanese culture”. Journal of Asian Studies, 54, 3, 759–780.
    Much, N. C. (1997). A semiotic view of socialization, lifespan development and cultural psychology, with vignettes from the moral culture of traditional Hindu households. Psychology and Developing Societies, 9, 1, 65–106.
    Müller, J. (2012). The sound of history and acoustic memory: Where psychology and history converge. Culture & Psychology, 18, 4, 443–464.
    Musaeus, P., and Brinkmann, S. (2011). The semiosis of family conflict: A case study of home-based psychotherapy. Culture & Psychology, 17, 1, 47–63.
    Nakane, S. (2006). Structure in the Japanese garden. The Antioch Review, 64, 2, 217–220.
    Naty, A. (2000). Protestant Christianity among the Aari people of southwest Ethiopia, 1950–1990. In V.Böll, S.Kaplan, A. Martínezd'Alois-Moner, and E.Sokolinskaia (Eds.), Ethiopia and the missions (pp. 141–152). Münster: LIT Verlag.
    Neuman, Y. (2009). Peter Pan's shadow and the relational matrix of the “I”. Semiotica, 176, 1/4, 15–27.
    Nir, D. (2012). Voicing inner conflict: From a dialogical to a negotiational self. In H.Hermans and T.Gieser (Eds.), Handbook of dialogical self theory (pp. 284–300). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nishida, K. (1979). Affective feeling. In Y.Nitta and H.Tatematsu (Eds.), Japanese phenomenology (Vol. 8, pp. 223–247). Dordrecht: Reidel.
    Norrick, N. (1985). How proverbs mean: Semantic studies in English proverbs. Berlin: Mouton.
    Obeyesekere, G. (1981). Medusa's hair. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Obeyesekere, G. (1984). The cult of the Goddess Pattini. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Obeyesekere, G. (1990). The work of culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (1987). The monkey as mirror. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (1993). Rice as self: Japanese identities through time. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (1994). The power of absence: Zero signifiers and their transgressions. L'Homme, 29, 2, 59–76.
    Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (1995). Structure, event and historical metaphor: Rice and identities in Japanese history. Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute, n.s., 1, 227–253.
    Pamuk, O. (2006). My father's suitcase. Nobel Prize Lecture, December, 7. [accessed September, 23, 2013].
    Parish, S. M. (1994). Moral knowing in a Hindu sacred city. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. New York: Free Press.
    Patel, D. S. (2012). Concealing to reveal: The informational role of Islamic dress. Rationality & Society, 24, 3, 295–323.
    Peirce, C. S. (1902). Sign. In J. M.Baldwin (Ed.), Dictionary of philosophy and psychology (Vol. 2., pp. 527–528). New York: MacMillan.
    Peirce, C. S. (1903/1997). Lecture Five: The normative sciences. In C. S.Peirce, Pragmatism as a principle and method of right thinking (pp. 205–220). Ed. P.Turrisi. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
    Peirce, C. S. (1935). Collected papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press [original in 1901].
    Perrott, M. (1990). History of private life (Vol. 4). From the fires of revolution to the Great War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press/Belknap Press.
    Pickering, M., and Keightley, E. (2006). The modalities of nostalgia. Current Sociology, 54, 6, 919–941.
    Pizarroso, N., and Valsiner, J. (2009). Why developmental psychology is not developmental: Moving towards abductive methodology. Paper presented at the Society of Research in Child Development, Denver, CO, April, 3.
    Poddiakov, A. N., and Valsiner, J. (2013). Intransitivity cycles and their transformations: How dynamically adapting systems function. In L.Rudolph (Ed.), Qualitative mathematics for the social sciences (pp. 343–391). London: Routledge.
    Polanyi, M. (1962). Personal knowledge. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Porter, T. (1995). Trust in numbers: The pursuit of objectivity in science and public life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Porter, T. (2003). The social sciences. In D.Cahan (Ed.), From natural philosophy to the sciences (pp. 254–290). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Puche-Navarro, R. (2012). Modeling iconic literacy: The dynamic models for complex cultural objects. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 303–315). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Rasmussen, S. (2009). Dynamic processes and the anthropology of emotions in the life course and aging. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 541–566). New York: Springer.
    Reed, E., and Jones, R. (Eds.) (1982). Reasons for realism: Selected essays of James J. Gibson. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Rescher, N. (1968). Can there be random individuals? In N.Rescher, Topics in philosophical logic (pp. 134–137). Dordrecht: Reidel.
    Ríbes-Iñesta, E. (2004). Behavior as abstraction, not ostension: Conceptual and historical remarks on the nature of psychology. Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 55–68.
    Riegel, K. (1978). Psychology mon amour: A countertext. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
    Rin, H. (1965). A study of the aetiology of Koro in respect to Chinese concept of illness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 11, 7–13.
    Roberts, B. B. (2006). The “Marlboro Men” of the early seventeenth century. Men and Masculinities, 9, 1, 76–94.
    Roche, D. (1996). The culture of clothing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Roche, D., (2000). Water and its uses. In D.Roche, A history of everyday things (pp. 135–165). Cambridge: CUP.
    Rommetveit, R. (1985). Language acquisition as increasing linguistic structuring of experience and symbolic behavior control. In J.Wertsch (Ed.), Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives (pp. 183–204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rommetveit, R. (1992). Outlines of a dialogically based social-cognitive approach to human cognition and communication. In A. H.Wold (Ed.), The dialogical alternative: Towards a theory of language and mind (pp. 19–44). Oslo: Scandinavian Universities Press.
    Rosa, A. (2007). Acts of psyche: Actuations as synthesis of semiosis and action. In J.Valsiner and A.Rosa (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of socio-cultural psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J., and Snyder, S. (1982). Changing the world and changing the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5–37.
    Rudolph, L. (Ed.) (2013). Qualitative mathematics for the social sciences. London: Routledge.
    Runeberg, A. (1971). On the (un)translatability of some Ferdinand Tönnies' principal sociological ideas. Acta Sociologica, 14, 4, 227–235.
    Salgado, J., and Gonçalves, M. (2007). The dialogical self: Social, personal, and (un)conscious. In J.Valsiner and A.Rosa (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of socio-cultural psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Salvatore, S. (2012). Social life of the sign: Sense-making in society. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 241–254). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Salvatore, S. (2013). The reciprocal inherency of self and context. Interacçoes, 24, 20–50.
    Salvatore, S., and Gennaro, A. (2012). The inherent diagonality of the clinical exchange. International Journal for Dialogical Science, 6, 1, 1–14.
    Salvatore, S., and Valsiner, J. (2010). Between the general and the unique: Overcoming the nomothetic versus idiographic opposition. Theory & Psychology, 20, 6, 817–833.
    Santos, A., and Gonçalves, M. (2009). Innovative moments and change in psychotherapy: An exercise in new methodology. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 493–526). New York: Springer.
    Sato, T., Fukuda, M., Hidaka, T., Kido, A., Nishida, M., and Akasaka, M. (2012). The authentic culture of living well: Pathways to psychological well-being. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 1078–1091). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Schelling, A. (2011). The Oxford anthology of Bhakti literature. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Schieffelin, E. L. (2005). The sorrow of the lonely and the burning of the dancers (
    2nd edition
    ). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Schlumbohm, J. (1980). Traditional collectivity and modern individuality: Some questions and suggestions for the historical study of socialization. Social History, 5, 1, 71–103.
    Schmidt, B. (2001). Innocence abroad: The Dutch imagination and the New World, 1570–1670. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Shaw, M. (1994). Passionate enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Sherif, M. (1936). The psychology of social norms. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Shweder, R., and Much, N. (1987). Determinations of meaning: Discourse and moral socialization. In W.Kurtines and J.Gewirtz (Eds.), Moral development through social interaction. New York: Wiley.
    Simão, L. M. (2012). The other in the self. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 403–420). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Simmel, G. (1911). Die Mode. In G.Simmel, Philosophishce Kultur (pp. 29–64). Leipzig: Werner Klinkhardt.
    Simmel, G. (1959a/1911). The ruin. In K. H.Wolfe (Ed.), Georg Simmel, 1858–1918 (pp. 259–266). Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press [German original in Philosophische Kultur, 1911].
    Simmel, G. (1959b/1911). The handle. In K. H.Wolfe (Ed.), Georg Simmel, 1858–1918 (pp. 267–275). Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press [German original Der Henkel, in Philosophische Kultur, 1911, in English also in The Hudson Review, 1958, 11, 3, 371–377].
    Simmel, G. (1971/1904). Fashion. In G.Simmel, Individuality and social structure (pp. 294–323). Chicago: University of Chicago Press [also in Philosophische Kultur, 1911].
    Simmel, G. (1971/1908). Subjective culture. In D. N.Levine (Ed.), Georg Simmel on individuality and social forms (pp. 227–234). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press [German original in 1908].
    Simmel, G. (1991/1908). The problem of style. Theory, Culture & Society, 8, 63–71.
    Simmel, G. (1994). Bridge and door. Theory, Culture & Society, 11, 5–10.
    Simmel, G. (2007a). The metaphysics of death. Theory, Culture & Society, 24, 7/8, 72–77.
    Simmel, G. (2007b/1913). The philosophy of landscape. Theory, Culture & Society, 24, 20–29.
    Simon, H. (2007). Karl Duncker and cognitive science. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), Thinking in psychological science (pp. 3–16). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Slavin, S. (2003). Walking as spiritual practice: The pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. Body & Society, 9, 3, 1–18.
    Smedslund, J. (1978). Bandura's theory of self-efficacy: A set of common sense theorems. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 1–14.
    Smedslund, J. (1980). Analyzing the primary code: From empiricism to apriorism. In D. R.Olson (Ed.), The social foundations of language and thought (pp. 47–73). New York: W. W. Norton.
    Smedslund, J. (1995). Psychology: Common sense and the pseudoempirical. In J. A.Smith, R.Harré, and L.van Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking psychology (pp. 196–206). London: Sage.
    Smedslund, J. (1997). The structure of psychological common sense. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Smedslund, J. (2009). The mismatch between current research methods and the nature of psychological phenomena: What researchers must learn from practitioners. Theory & Psychology, 19, 778–794.
    Smedslund, J. (2012). What follows from what we all know about human beings. Theory & Psychology, 22, 5, 658–668.
    Smith, B. (1977). A dialectical social psychology?Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 719–724.
    Smith, B. (1988). Materials towards a history of speech act theory. In A.Eschbach (Ed.), Karl Bühler's theory of language (pp. 125–152). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Smith, B. (1997). Boundaries: An essay in mereotopology. In L.Hahn (Ed.), The philosophy of Roderick Chisholm (pp. 534–561). LaSalle, IL: Open Court.
    Smith, P. (2003). Narrating the guillotine: Punishment technology as myth and symbol. Theory, Culture & Society, 20, 5, 27–51.
    Sonesson, G. (2010). Here comes the semiotic species. In B.Wagoner (Ed.), Symbolic transformation (pp. 38–58). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
    Sorokin, P. (1985). Social and cultural dynamics (
    2nd edition
    ). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Sovran, T. (1992). Between similarity and sameness. Journal of Pragmatics, 18, 4, 329–344.
    Steinmetz, G. (2004). The uncontrollable afterlives of ethnography: Lessons from “salvage colonialism” in the German overseas empire. Ethnography, 5, 3, 251–288.
    Stern, W. (1935). Allgemeine Psychologie auf personalistischer Grundlage. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Stern, W. (1938). General psychology from the personalist standpoint. New York: Macmillan.
    Strandbu, A. (2005). Identity, embodied culture and physical exercise: Stories of Muslim girls in Oslo with immigrant backgrounds. Young, 13, 1, 27–45.
    Strum, S. (2000). Science encounters. In S.Strum and L.Fedigan (Eds.), Primate encounters: Models of science, gender, and society (pp. 475–497). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Struthers, R., and Hodge, F. S. (2004). Sacred tobacco use in Ojibwe communities. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 22, 3, 209–225.
    Tanggaard, L. (2014). Having fun. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Tarde, G. (1897). L'Opposition universelle: Essai d'une théorie des contraires. Paris: Felix Alcan.
    Tarlow, S. (2000). Landscapes of memory: The nineteenth-century garden cemetery. European Journal of Archaeology, 3, 2, 217–239.
    Tateo, L., and Marsico, G. (2013). The self as tension of wholeness and emptiness. Interacçoes, 24, 1–19.
    Thomas, W. I. (1923). The unadjusted girl. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.
    Thommen, B., and Wettstein, A. (2010). Culture as the co-evolution of psychic and social systems: New perspectives on the person–environment relationship. Culture & Psychology, 16, 2, 213–241.
    Thompson, C. J., Haytko, D. L. (1997). Speaking of fashion: Consumers' uses of fashion discourses and the appropriation of countervailing cultural meanings. Journal of Consumer Research, 24, 15–42.
    Thompson, E. A. (2006). The tulipmania: Fact or artifact?Public Choice, 130, 1/2, 99–114 [DOI 10.1007/s11127-006-9074-4].
    Tilly, C. (2004). Observations of social processes and their formal representations. Sociological Theory, 22, 4, 595–602.
    Toomela, A. (2007). Culture of science: Strange history of the methodological thinking in psychology. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 41, 1, 6–20.
    Toomela, A. (2009). How methodology became a toolbox–and how it escapes from that box. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 45–66). New York: Springer.
    Toomela, A. (2012). Guesses on the future of cultural psychology: Past, present, and past. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 998–1033). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Toren, C. (1999). Mind, materiality and history. London: Routledge.
    Turner, V. (1979). Frame, flow and reflection: Ritual and drama as public liminality. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 6, 4, 465–499.
    Turner, V. (1995). The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom. London: John Murray.
    Uher, J. (2013). Personality psychology: Lexical approaches, assessment: Methods, and trait concepts reveal only half of the story–why it is time for a paradigm shift. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 47, 1–55.
    Urban, G. (2001). Metacultures: How culture moves through the world. Minnesota, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Valsiner, J. (1986). Between groups and individuals: Psychologists‘ and laypersons’ interpretations of correlational findings. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The individual subject and scientific psychology (pp. 113–152). New York: Plenum.
    Valsiner, J. (1988). Developmental psychology in the Soviet Union. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Valsiner, J. (1996). Devadasi temple dancers and cultural construction of persons-in-society. In M. K.Raha (Ed.), Dimensions of human society and culture (pp. 443–476). New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House.
    Valsiner, J. (1997). Culture and the development of children's action (
    2nd edition
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Valsiner, J. (1998). The guided mind: A sociogenetic approach to personality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Valsiner, J. (1999). I create you to control me: A glimpse into basic processes of semiotic mediation. Human Development, 42, 26–30.
    Valsiner, J. (2000). Culture and human development. London: Sage.
    Valsiner, J. (2002). Forms of dialogical relations and semiotic autoregulation within the self. Theory & Psychology, 12, 2, 251–265.
    Valsiner, J. (2006a). Ambivalence under scrutiny: Returning to the future. Estudios de Psicologia, 27, 1, 117–130.
    Valsiner, J. (2006b). The overwhelming world: Functions of pleromatization in creating diversity in cultural and natural constructions. Keynote lecture at the International School of Semiotic and Structural Studies, Imatra, Finland, June, 1.
    Valsiner, J. (2007). Culture in minds and societies. New Delhi: Sage.
    Valsiner, J. (2009). Between fiction and reality: Transforming the semiotic object. Sign System Studies, 37, 1, 99–113.
    Valsiner, J. (2012a). A guided science. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Valsiner, J. (Ed.) (2012b). The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Valsiner, J. (2014). Needed for cultural psychology: Methodology in a new key. Culture & Psychology, 20, 1, 3–30.
    Valsiner, J., Bibace, R., and LaPushin, T. (2005). What happens when a researcher asks a question? In R.Bibace, J. D.Laird, K. L.Noller, and J.Valsiner (Eds.), Science and medicine in dialogue: Thinking through particulars and universals (pp. 275–288). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Valsiner, J., and Cabell, K. R. (2012). Self-making through synthesis: Extending dialogical self theory. In H. J. M.Hermans and T.Gieser (Eds.), Handbook of dialogical self theory (pp. 82–97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Valsiner, J., and van der Veer, R. (1993). The encoding of distance: The concept of the zone of proximal development and its interpretations. In R. R.Cocking and K. A.Renninger (Eds.), The development and meaning of psychological distance (pp. 35–62). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Valsiner, J., and van der Veer, R. (2000). The social mind: Construction of the idea. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Valsiner, J., and van der Veer, R. (2014). The encoding of distance. In A.Yasnitsky and R.van der Veer (Eds.), Handbook of cultural-historical psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [in press].
    Van der Spek, K. (2008). Faked antikas and “modern antiques”. Journal of Social Archaeology, 8, 2, 163–189.
    van der Veer, R. (2009). Creating the future: Vygotsky as an experimenter. In J.Clegg (Ed.), The observation of human systems (pp. 29–43). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Vargas Llosa, M. (1996). The truth of lies. In M. VargasLlosa, Making waves (pp. 320–330). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Varzi, A. (1998). Basic problems of mereotopology. In N.Guarino (Ed.), Formal ontology of informational systems (pp. 29–28). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
    Verhofstadt-Denève, L. (2000). Theory and practice of action and drama techniques. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Vignaux, G., and Moscovici, S. (2000). The concept of themata. In S.Moscovici and G.Duveen (Eds.), Social representations (pp. 156–183). Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Voeglin, C. F., and Pierce, J. E. (1953). Review of Kroeber's The Nature of Culture. International Journal of American Linguistics, 19, 3, 237–242.
    Vogt, E. A. (1996). Civilisation and Kultur: Keywords in the history of French and German citizenship. Cultural Geographies, 3, 125–140.
    von Eye, A., Mun, E.-Y., and Mair, P. (2009). What carries a mediation process? Configural analysis of mediation. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 4, 3, 228–247.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1926/1982). Istoricheskii smysl psikhologicheskogo krizisa. In L. S.Vygotsky, Sobranie sochinenii (Vol. 1). Voprosy teorii i istorii psikhologii (pp. 291–346). Moscow: Pedagogika.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1934). Myshlenie i rec'. Moscow-Leningrad: Gosudar stvennoe Sotsialno-eknomicheskoe Izdatel'stvo (in Russian).
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1971). Psychology of art. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1982/1927). Istoricheskii smysl psikhologicheskogo krizisa. In L. S.Vygotsky, Sobranie sochinenii (Vol. 1). Moscow: Pedagogika
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech. New York: Plenum.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1999). Psikhologia iskusstva. Moscow: Pedagogika.
    Wagoner, B. (2007). Overcoming psychology's methodology: Finding synthesis beyond the American and German-Austrian division. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 41, 1, 66–74.
    Wagoner, B. (2009). The experimental methodology of constructive microgenesis. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 99–121). New York: Springer.
    Wagoner, B. (2012). Culture in constructive remembering. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 1034–1054). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Wagoner, B. (2014). Bartlett's concept of schema in reconstruction. Theory & Psychology [in press].
    Wagoner, B., and Valsiner, J. (2005). Rating tasks in psychology: From static ontology to dialogical synthesis of meaning. In A.Gülerce, A.Hofmeister, I.Staeuble, G.Saunders, and J.Kaye (Eds.), Contemporary theorizing in psychology: Global perspectives (pp. 197–213). Toronto: Captus Press.
    Waitz, R. (2001). Women and their hair: Seeking power through resistance and accommodation. Gender & Society, 15, 5, 667–686.
    Wallis, M. (1973). On iconic signs. In M.Wallis, Recherches sur les systèmes signifiants: Symposium de Varsovie 1968 (pp. 481–498). The Hague: Mouton.
    Weiner, M. F. (1998). Mistresses and slaves: Plantation women in South Carolina, 1830–80. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Welter, B. (1966). The cult of True Womanhood: 1820–1860. American Quarterly, 18, 151–174.
    Wescoat, J. L. (1994). The scale(s) of dynastic representation: Monumental tomb-gardens in Mughal Lahore. Ecumene, 1, 4, 324–339.
    West, C. (1989). The American evasion of philosophy: A genealogy of pragmatism. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Wicker, A. W. (2012). Perspectives on behavior settings: With illustrations from Allison's ethnography of a Japanese hostess club. Environment and Behavior, 44, 4, 474–492.
    Wierzbicka, A. (2005). In defense of “culture”. Theory & Psychology, 15, 4, 575–597.
    Wikan, U. (2002). Generous betrayal. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Willerslev, R. (2004). Not animal, not not-animal: Hunting, imitation and emphatic knowledge among the Siberian Yukaghirs. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10, 629–652.
    Willerslev, R. (2007). Soul hunters: Hunting, animism, and personhood among the Siberian Yukaghirs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Wilson, T. (1896). The swastika. Washington, DC: Government Printing Press.
    Wittgenstein, L. (1958). Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Wood, S. S. (1988). In defense of images: Two local rejoinders to the Zwinglian iconoclasm. Sixteenth Century Journal, 19, 1, 25–44.
    Woolsey, J. M. (1961). The monumental decision of the United States District Court on December, 6, 1933 lifting the ban on “Ulysses”. In J.Joyce, Ulysses (pp. vii–xii). New York: Vintage Books.
    Wölfflin, H. (1950/1915). Principles of art history. New York: Dover
    Wörringer, W. (1997). Abstraction and empathy. Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee.
    Yama, M. (2011). Listening to the narratives of a pre-modern world: Beyond the world of dichotomy. In R. A.Jones and M.Morioka (Eds.), Jungian and dialogical self perspectives (pp. 30–42). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Yoon, H.-K. (1994). Two different geomentalities, two different gardens: The French and the Japanese cases. GeoJournal, 33, 4, 471–477.
    Yurevich, A. V. (2009). Cognitive frames in psychology: Demarcations and ruptures. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 43, 89–103.
    Zimmerman, A., and Valsiner, J. (2009). The living, the un-living, and the hard-to-kill: Acting and feeling on the boundary. In R. SokolChang (Ed.), Relating to environments (pp. 119–143). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Zittoun, T. (2006). Transitions. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishers.
    Zittoun, T. (2009). Dynamics of life-course transitions. In J.Valsiner, P.Molenaar, M.Lyra, and N.Chaudhary (Eds.), Dynamic process methodology in the social and developmental sciences (pp. 405–430). New York: Springer.
    Zittoun, T. (2010). How does an object become symbolic? In B.Wagoner (Ed.), Symbolic transformation (pp. 173–192). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
    Zittoun, T. (2012a). Life course: A sociocultural perspective. In J.Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 513–534) New York: Oxford University Press.
    Zittoun, T. (2012b). On the emergence of the subject. IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 46, 259–273.
    Zittoun, T., Valsiner, J., Vedeler, D., Salgado, J., Gonçalves, M., and Ferring, D. (2013). Melodies of living. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Zurawska-Zyla, R., Chmielnicka-Kuter, E., and Oles, P. (2012). Spatial organization of the dialogical self in creative writers. In H.Hermans and T.Gieser (Eds.), Handbook of dialogical self theory (pp. 253–263). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Loading...
Back to Top